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Full text of "Smtihsonian Folklife Festival 1999 : on the National Mall, Washington, D.C. June 23-27 & June 30-July 4"

1 999 Smitfasonian 
FoJkliK Festival 






A young woman from 
the Fagara^ region of 
Romania embroiders a 
traditional pattern. 

Photo courtesy Village 
Museum. Bucharest 




4 An example of 

H traditional 

' architecture by 

1 the Basotho 

^ people, Clarens, 

■ Free State, 

' South Africa. 

Photo courtesy SATOUR 



Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival 



On the National Mall 
Washington, D.C. 

June 23-27 & June 30-July 4 

Co -sponsored by the National Park Service 



^ ^ Smithsonian Institution 




Contents Celebratjng New 

I Michael Heyman Hampshire's Storles 

Culture In and Out of the Museum.... 2 Betty Belanus and Lynn Martin 

Bruce Babbitt Celebrating 

Safeguarding Cultural Resources 3 ^^w Hampshire's Stories 

' ; Richard Kunn James L.Garvin 

/ Cultural Heritage Development 4 ^^w Hampshire's 

j L^:. , r , Cultural Landscape 

■ !, James Early 

,( Values We Bring to Our Work 4 BurtFeintuch 

il .■ ^1 Fiddle Music, Dance, and 

Anthony Seeger Community in New Hampshire .... 

>^ Creatmg Cultural Heritage 

# through Recordings 6 Rebecca L. Lawrence 

i n D I Making Do: 

\' Uiana barker The Aesthetics of Frugality 

\ .^ Conserving and Creatmg 

' Cultural Heritage: Gary Samson 

The Smithsonian Folklife Festival .... 8 Le Patrimoine franco-americain/ 

Franco-American Heritage in 
New Hampshire: A Photo Essay 

Donald Hall 

Granite and Grass 

David H.Watters 

Politics and Community Values 



On the Cover 



New Hampshire is nicknamed the Granite State 
because of the region's abundance of the stone 
and its many uses. Top: The quarry at Swenson 
Granite Works in Concord, New Hampshire, has 
been in the Swenson family for four generations. 
Above: Stone wall building workshop at Canter- 
bury Shaker Village, Canterbury, New Hampshire, 
led by master wall builder Kevin Fife. 
Photos by Lynn Martin 



13 



M\ 



20 



23 



Richard Ober 
Use and Reservation: 
Land Stewardship in 
New Hampshire 



26 
30 
31 

34 



I 



Background: Though today cranes usually 
assist in the raising of a post and beam building, 
members of The Timber Framers Guild of North 
America sponsor community-based hand-raising 
projects to keep the old skills alive. 
Photo by Tedd Benson 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Gateways to Romania 

Charles King 

Gateways to Romanian 

Culture and History 38 

Colin Quigley,ZamfirDejeu, 

and Constantin Costea 

Traditional Music and Dance 

in Romania Today 42 

MihaiPop 

Folklore Today 43 

lulianaCiotoiuandMihaiDancu^ 
Traditional Architecture 47 

Nicolae Constantinsecu 
Romanian Foodways: 
A Crossroads of Tastes 49 

Georgeta Ro^u 

Romanian Pottery and Ceramics ... 5 1 

Irina Nicolau 

City Life 53 

Radu Florescu 

Dracula: Hero or Villain? 54 



South Africa: 
Crafting the Economic 
Renaissance of the 
Rainbow Nation 

Jannes Early 

South Africa at the Festival: 

The Historical Context 58 

RuphusMatibe 

South Africa: 

Crafting the Fconomic Renaissance 

of the Rainbow Nation 61 

Andrew Tracey 

Musical Instruments 

of South Africa 63 

Evelyn Senna 

TheRoleoftheCrafter 

in Development 65 

Vusi Mona 

Shebeens 67 

Eddie Koch 

Crafts and the 

Spatial Development Initiatives — 69 

Melinda Silverman 

Rural Architecture 71 



The Fifth Annual Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert 

A Guiding Spirit: 

A n Interview with Ethel Raim 

and Martin Koenig 75 

Carol Silverman 

Yuri Yunakov Ensemble 78 

Michael Alpert 

Ensemble Tereza 79 



General Festival 
Information 

Festival Participants 82 

Festival Partners, Sponsors, 
Contributors, and Donors 86 

Festival Staff 90 

Associated Conferences 
and Seminars 92 

Educational Offerings 93 

Evening Programs Calendar 94 

Special Concerts and Events 95 

Recent Books about the Festival 
and Smithsonian Folkways 96 

Lily Spandorf Festival Collection 97 

Smithsonian Folkways Recordings ... 98 



© 1999 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

ISSN 1056-6805 

editor: Caria M.Borden 
ASSOCIATE editor: Peter Seitel 
ART director: KennShrader 
production manager: Kristen Fernekes 
design assistant: Caroline Brownell 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival 



Basket weaver, 

Eastern Cape 

Province, 

South Africa. 

Photo courtesy 
SATOUR 




Culture In and Out 
of the Museum 

I. Michael Heyman, Secretary 
Smithsonian Institution 



Welcome to the 1999 Smith- 
sonian Folklife Festival. On 
the National Mall of the United 
States for two weeks culminating with our 
Independence Day, the Festival enables 
people to represent their own cultural tra- 
ditions and creativity, and celebrate these 
with fellow citizens of the nation and visi- 
tors from around the world. 

This year, we host programs on New 
Hampshire, Romania, and South Africa. 
A central theme is the ability of diverse 
people from three continents, living with 
incredible societal changes, to use their 
own deeply held cultural traditions as a 
means of crafting their own identities, 
their own stories, their and our very 
future. 

Celebrating New Hampshire's Stories 
points to the many ways people from 
that fiercely democratic state define 
their lives. The state's natural bounty is 
continually expressed in the arts and 
enjoyed with the help of varied crafts 
and skills that serve a vibrant recre- 
ational and tourism industry. Economic 
life illustrates ingenuity and a historic 
continuity with traditional manufacture, 
both in large corporate workplaces and 
smaller, high-tech, precision manufac- 
turing shops. Community life reflects a 
strong investment in the historic preser- 
vation of the built environment and par- 
ticipation in institutions such as town 
meetings, contra dances, and soirees that 
bring people together just when other 
forces in society tend to keep them 
apart. And the life of our nation itself is 



dramatically shaped by the most con- 
temporary of conversations that tradi- 
tionally occur in New Hampshire cafes 
and living rooms during presidential 
primary campaigns. 

Gateways to Romania is an apt title for 
what is, in effect, an opening at the 
Festival of relationships between the 
American and Romanian people. The 
Festival program, and the process of 
achieving it, represent an important 
collaboration between Romania and the 
United States. Following decades of polit- 
ical repression, Romanians now seek the 
means of realizing a democratic and 
humane society. The cultural correlates 
of such a society are freedom of cultural 
expression, and the ability to practice 
and preserve one's traditions as well as 
create new cultural syntheses. Romania 
has long been a cultural crossroads with 
Latinate, Orthodox, Balkan, Germanic, 
Hungarian, Roma, Turkish, and Jewish 
influences in music, song, dance, crafts- 
manship, sacred and culinary arts. The 
Festival provides both a showcase and a 
means for culture-rich Romania to use 
its treasures, for the benefit of its own 
citizens and to inform Americans about 
its people and heritage. 

South Africa: Crafting the Economic 
Renaissance of the Rainbow Nation 
reveals the attempts of thousands of 
community-based craftspeople to 
enhance their economic development 
and civic participation through their 
artistry. Crafts in South Africa are as 
diverse as the Rainbow Nation itself. 



drawing upon the generations-old tradi- 
tions of indigenous people and those of 
Asian and European immigrant commu- 
nities, from functional crafts of everyday 
use to the arts of survival that developed 
in townships. For many, crafts have a 
civic as well as an economic role, expres- 
sing the identity of a community while 
at the same time earning income for a 
family's livelihood. The Festival is part of 
an ongoing attempt to build upon the 
knowledge and skills of local-level 
artists in order to help build a new 
nation based upon human and cultural 
rights and economic opportunity 

Though cultural displays may try to 
crystallize and signal what lies beyond 
them, culture is never bounded by the 
exhibits in our museums or the perfor- 
mance stages at the Festival. The 
Festival, as a museum-like event, tries to 
show this. For museums and their pro- 
grams to be vital, they must tap into the 
vitality that is around them. Doing this 
will always necessitate research and col- 
lecting, not only on historical traditions 
but on emerging forms of expression — 
for history does not stop. Most of all, as 
institutions of public life, museums 
must help nurture and distribute knowl- 
edge — a fundamental prerequisite of a 
truly democratic, free society Museums 
can provide the space — real, symbolic, 
and virtual — wherein people can make 
their own culture, and make culture 
their own. The Festival, and the folks 
from New Hampshire, Romania, and 
South Africa, do this very well. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Safeguarding 
Cultural Resources 

Bruce Babbitt, Secretary 
Department of the Interior 



Conservation of natural and cul- 
tural resources is an important 
aspect of the Department of 
Interiors mission, one shared with the 
Smithsonian Institution. This, and our 
custodial responsibility for the National 
Mall through the National Park Service, 
have formed the basis of our co-spon- 
sorship of the Folklife Festival for three 
decades. 

Conservation does not mean freezing 
something in amber or in a museum 
case, setting aside land or a historically 
important site to remain untouched and 
unseen. It means custodial care or stew- 
ardship, the prudent use of resources in 
a sustainable way, so that the bounty we 
have received can be bequeathed to the 
next generation, hopefully with value we 
have added to it. Conservation, in this 
sense, is serious societal business. 

In the last decade we have seen an 
increasing awareness of the importance 
of cultural resources in urban renewal, 
regional tourism, and economic devel- 
opment efforts, and as the basis of con- 
veying the lessons of history to our chil- 
dren and fellow citizens. The Depart- 
ment of Interior and the National Park 
Service have supported several pro- 
grams such as the Heritage Corridors 
and American Heritage Rivers to enable 
concerned communities to develop cul- 
tural resources in a meaningful, sustain- 
able way. These efforts involve partner- 
ships between local, state, and national 
agencies; the public and private sector; 
and business, academic, and voluntary 



groups. Indeed, the incremental move- 
ment toward democracy and citizens' 
participation observable over the past 
decade and century informs our work in 
cultural conservation. Decisions are not 
made and promulgated from the top 
down or from centers of power to the 
peripheries. Instead, we have come to 
expect local groups to participate more 
in dialogues about, and take greater 
responsibility for, the conservation, use, 
and development of their cultural 
resources. 

We see this movement represented at 
this year's Festival with programs on 
New Hampshire, Romania, and South 
Africa. As illustrated at the Festival, peo- 
ple in New Hampshire have used their 
ample natural resources for building cul- 
tural tourism and recreation industries. 
They have invested in arts of historic 
renovation to give character and mean- 
ing to villages, towns, and homes. They 
have inherited attitudes of ingenuity and 
applied them to contemporary technical 
manufacturing purposes. And they have 
taken a tradition of grassroots democra- 
cy and turned it into a civics lesson for 
the modern world. 

Romania's participation in the Festival 
provides a gateway for cultural dialogue, 
both within that nation and with a 
broader world. For cultural resources to 
have value they must be shared or 
exchanged. Though several Romanian 
writers and artists achieved internation- 
al repute over the past decades, cultural 
creativity and interaction were generally 



limited by a repressive regime. With 
democratic and economic reforms 
comes a desire by many Romanians to 
look at their rich cultural traditions — 
such as those displayed on the National 
Mall — and devise means for encourag- 
ing increased cultural production, cre- 
ativity, and engagement that contribute 
to civic life and a prosperous economy. 

For South Africa, culture is the 
lifeblood of the nation. People's culture 
— expressed in song, dance, plays, 
murals, posters, arts of adornment, and 
crafts — provided a vehicle for the anti- 
apartheid freedom movement that creat- 
ed the new South Africa, and captured 
the world's imagination. Now, as demon- 
strated at the Festival, South Africans 
seek to use a diversity of aesthetic tradi- 
tions and local, community-based cul- 
tural productions for the purposes of 
economic development and attendant 
civic participation. 

The Festival has long helped people 
from all regions of the United States and 
places around the world to define, 
express, and present their cultural aspi- 
rations to a broad public. We have come 
to see those people as cultural resources 
in their own right, as repositories of 
knowledge, skill, artistry, and even wis- 
dom who have the ability to add to and 
carry their cultural traditions forward to 
the next generation. And at the Festival 
they show us how. The Festival is an 
exercise of cultural democracy in the 
heart of the free world; we are proud to 
help in its annual production. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Cultural Heritage 
Development 



Richard Kurin 



The Smithsonian Folklife Festival, 
from its inception, has been con- 
ceived as a way of helping people 
keep their culture alive and well. Seen in 
relation to the Smithsonian's museums, 
the Festival has stressed living cultural 
traditions rather than artifacts. While 
curated and researched, the Festival has 
relied upon substantive partnerships 
with the people, communities, and insti- 
tutions being represented. It has depend- 
ed more upon people to sing, perform, 
craft, demonstrate, discuss, and reflect 
on their own culture than on more 
mediated forms of communication. The 
Festival has always been concerned with 
the consequences and impacts of cultur- 
al representation for democratic process- 
es and economic vitality Other projects 
connected with the Festival produced by 
the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and 
Cultural Heritage, such as Smithsonian 
Folkways Recordings, cultural education 
programs, traveling exhibitions, films, 
education kits, and training programs, 
are generally conceived of in the same 
way. The concern about keeping people's 
culture alive and well is nowadays 
referred to as cultural heritage 
development. 



Cultural Heritage 
AND Development 

Cultural heritage is a community's self- 
recognition of its current and historical 
accomplishments, products, activities, 
and forms of expression. Cultural her- 
itage is construed and articulated by 
people as a symbol of their identity, a 
selection from history and social action 
of particular — usually valued — 
accomplishments, traditions, and 
events. Cultural heritage is often spoken 



of in terms of tangible items — monu- 
ments, historic sites, artwork, books, for 
example — and intangible forms — 
songs, stories, public celebrations. 
Cultural heritage might be further dif- 
ferentiated by the sociology of its cre- 
ation, use, and control. Charles Seeger, a 
noted ethnomusicologist, proposed the 
division of cultural traditions into elite, 
popular, and folk. "Elite" consists of 
those traditions often thought of as 
classical, requiring a great deal of for- 



Values We Bring to Our Work 

James Early 



We bring a range of values to our 
work, guided by a variety of acad- 
emic and technical disciplines. Each dis- 
cipline, each set of values, contributes to 
our study and understanding of contem- 
porary grassroots cultures. 

We also hold some values in common. 
We share a commitment to the Smith- 
sonian's mandate to increase and diffuse 
knowledge. We seek to produce sound 
scholarship and impart useful educa- 
tional information and materials. We 
also share the inheritance of our 
predecessors at the Center, who founded, 
nurtured, revised, and expanded the 
Folklife Festival into the web of 
research, education, recordings, exhibi- 
tions, cultural activism, and applied pol- 
icy programs it has become. 

Ralph Rinzler stands out among the 
people inside and outside of the Smith- 



sonian — formal and lay scholars, pro- 
fessional and community artists, and 
cultural activists — who shaped the 
vision and philosophy of the Festival. 
Ralph combined a keen aesthetic sensi- 
bility with a deep commitment to social 
justice. He saw and helped others see 
the need for the recognition, respect, 
and participation of tradition bearers 
in the validating institutions of public 
life. He expressed his knowledge and 
belief in writing. Festival production, 
and most clearly in fighting for access 
for diverse cultural communities, schol- 
ars, and cultural activists to speak, 
write, sing, and perform on their own 
cultural terms, thus contributing to the 
development of our national and global 
cultural life. Each succeeding genera- 
tion of staff has brought new sensibili- 
ties, projects, and programs to the fur- 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



mal training and highly organized 
social institutions for their practice and 
continuity. Popular cuUure is more the 
domain of the mass market: cuUure cre- 
ated and distributed by companies for 
widespread consumption. Folk culture 
or folklife is oriented toward more orally 
transmitted, intangible living traditions 
produced and reproduced at a grass- 
roots community level. As a termJo/A- 
life is variously known in the United 
States and other nations as grassroots 
culture, popular culture, traditional cul- 
ture, folklore, or ethnographic culture. 
In the 1976 Folklife Preservation Act, 
the U.S. Congress defined folklife as "the 
totality of tradition-based creations of a 
cultural community, expressed by a 
group or individuals and recognized as 
reflecting the expectations of a commu- 
nity in so far as they reflect its cuhural 
and social identity; its standards and 
values are transmitted orally, by imita- 



tion, or by other means, hs forms are, 
among others, language, literature, 
music, dance, games, mythology, rituals, 
customs, handicrafts, architecture, and 
other arts." That definition was mir- 
rored by UNESCO member states in a 
1989 Recommendation on the Safe- 
guarding of Traditional Culture and 
Folklore. 

The Smithsonian Folklife Festival 
took the term folklife in 1967 from Don 
Voder's use of it for the Pennsylvania 
Folklife Festival. Following Scandina- 
vian usage, it signified a broader frame 
of reference than folklore or oral narra- 
tive, to include crafts, food, and other 
forms of expressive culture. Folklife also 
contrasted with folk as an increasingly 
commercialized genre of the urban 
revival of rural folk music familiar to 
Festival founder James Morris, who had 
organized the American Folk Festival in 
Asheville, North Carolina, and to the 



Pursuit of 
professional 
standards^ 
people- 
centerednesSy 
and community 
agency comprise 
the value matrix 
we bring to 
our work. 



therance of these goals. 

As cultural workers, we are people- 
centered. The values that measure the 
worth of our achievements and distin- 
guish them from those of other scholars 
are located in the agency of the grass- 
roots communities with whom we work. 
We value collaboration with the vibrant, 
lived experiences of cultural communi- 
ties. We recognize their ability to draw 
on their historically formed and prac- 
ticed antecedents to negotiate forbidding 
challenges. We acknowledge their need 
to take advantage of all-too-infrequent 
opportunities for improvement in their 
material lives, to gain access to fuller 
recognition, to demand wholesome rep- 
resentation, and to participate actively in 
the broader society. Like professional 
colleagues in related fields of cultural 
work, we are keenly interested in cultural 
processes and products. However, we try 
to avoid blind allegiance to ideal profes- 
sional standards or the mechanical 



demands of bureaucracies (ours includ- 
ed). Pursuit of professional standards, 
people-centeredness, and community 
agency comprise the value matrix we 
bring to our work. Grassroots communi- 
ty is our active colleague, not our passive 
subject of inquiry and complex intellec- 
tual description. Therefore, we value pro- 
fessional colleagues and cultural com- 
munity collaborators as peers. 

Reciprocity is another key value. We 
seek projects built upon the exchange 
of information and experiences with 
colleagues and communities. We value 
the critical skills and reformative attrib- 
utes of grassroots communities that 
enable internal evaluation of continuity 
and change in cultural practices. We are 
conscious of the use-value of our educa- 
tion and skills, our institutional linkages 
and resources, our global networks and 
access to governments. We employ our 
positions to assist communities in rais- 
ing their visibility, amplifying their voic- 



es, and expanding their access and 
resources. We recognize our privileged 
status in the relationship; yet we do not 
(cannot) empower or authorize commu- 
nity agency. 

We are mindful that ideal goals and 
working relationships described in our 
statement of values are general and elu- 
sive guidelines. They are impeded, redi- 
rected, and recast by the very agency of 
the partners with whom we work. We are 
also aware that without those guidelines 
and respect for community agency, we 
run the risk of resorting to what inter- 
ests us rather than the institutional 
value of full community access to and 
participation in democratic institutions, 
capital-economic resources, and cultural 
respect by fellow citizens in national and 
global communities. 

James Early is director of cultural heritage 
policy at the Center for Folklife and 
Cultural Heritage. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Festival's first director, Ralph Rinzler, 
who served as head of research and 
programming at the Newport Folk 
Festival. The Smithsonian Folklife 
Festival has generally viewed the idea 
of cultural community as exceedingly 
broad, conducting research and produc- 



ing public programs on a wide variety 
of communities whose traditions are 
defined in ethnic, racial, occupational, 
religious, familial, regional, national, 
associational, and topical terms. While 
the Folklife Festival has featured the 
traditions of numerous American eth- 



nic groups, American Indian communi- 
ties, and national and regional cultures, 
it has also examined the culture of 
occupations ranging from cowboys to 
trial lawyers, farmers to scientists; com- 
munities defined by institutions, like 
the White House and numerous unions 



Creating Cultural Heritage through Recordings 

Anthony Seeger 




Research documentation is housed in the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at the 
Smithsonian. Here, head archivist Jeff Place looks for a recording. Plwto by Keiiii Shrader 



Some people think recordings are just 
entertainment. Other people consider 
them a kind of scholarly publication. Yet 
others imagine them to be the source of 
vast income. At Smithsonian Folkways 
Recordings we have our own ideas about 
the significance of the recordings we put 
out — entertaining though they may be, 
scholarly though they may seem, and 
unprofitable as they are. 

Until little more than a hundred years 
ago, no one could hear exactly the same 
sound twice. People tried to write down 
sounds but could only do so approxi- 
mately. A vast part of human cultural 
heritage was transmitted personally — 
visually and aurally — through demon- 
stration and instruction. With the inven- 
tion of audio recording technology, and 
later film and other media, more re- 
sources have become available for pass- 
ing on traditions from one generation to 
another as well as from one place to 



another. Today most people in the world 
listen to more recorded performances 
than live ones, and recordings have 
become one of the means through which 
cultural heritage is demonstrated, cele- 
brated, and passed on. 

Communities everywhere are docu- 
menting their traditions on audio and 
video recordings. Most media, however, 
have a shorter life span than a person: a 
person may live 80 or more years; a digi- 
tal audio tape (DAT) may last fewer than 
ten, and in humid, tropical climates, 
videotape may become unplayable after 
only a year or two. Only if they are depos- 
ited in archives and the sound transferred 
from medium to medium will the docu- 
ments of human cultural heritage survive 
far into the next century. 

Publishing recordings is another way 
to increase the chance of their survival. 
When we sell 2,000 copies of the sounds 
of performers in western Sumatra, we 



spread them to countries all over the 
world, where some may survive, even if 
the master tapes are destroyed by natur- 
al disaster or war. Even in the United 
States — which has suffered fewer wars 
than other countries, has a temperate 
climate, and has audio archives — mas- 
ter discs and tapes of recordings done in 
the 1920s often no longer exist, but good 
copies can be made of the 78 rpm discs 
that were produced from them. 

Many of our recordings are produced 
through collaboration with specific com- 
munities that seek us out and want us to 
publish their music. They see a recording 
as conferring prestige on their traditions. 
Taking the recording back to their com- 
munities, they can both demonstrate its 
significance to others and preserve the 
sounds of some of their best practition- 
ers. Some communities, like the Old 
Regular Baptists of the Indian Bottom 
Association, approve of our publishing 
their beautiful singing because the Smith- 
sonian is a non-profit institution; for them 
music is not something performed for 
money, but for faith. They also wrote 
many of the notes accompanying the 
recording and determined its cover art. 
They felt very much that the recording 
represented their intentions, and their 
experience has been shared by many 
other individuals and communities. 

In some cases. Folkways keeps in print 
recordings of the last known performers 
of a genre — like the sacred chants of the 
Selk'nam in Tierra del Fuego, who no 
longer perform them. The survival of the 
genre is now entirely through media, at 
least for now. In other cases, recordings 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Cultural Heritage Development 



and guilds; cultural communities, like 
those of the deaf, who have built intri- 
cate systems of communication and 
expression; and communities of inter- 
est, like those of the Civil Rights move- 
ment, the Farm Workers movement, 
ham radio operators, and the like. 



Due to its very nature, the Festival rec- 
ognizes the real people who practice 
their culture, not just the abstract forms 
of traditions. The Festival develops an 
ethical relationship with those people; to 
invest in them is to invest in what they 
do, even when what they do may extend 



we make revive interest in musical forms. 
In Nias, an island off Sumatra, a record- 
ing in the Music of Indonesia series (vol- 
ume 4) stimulated an enthusiastic 
revival. In Wisconsin, our recording of 
polka music as part of the 1998 
Smithsonian Folklife Festival received 
somewhat embarrassed local newspaper 
reviews acknowledging that polka is part 
of the heritage of the state — albeit a 
part of the heritage that some people try 
hard to forget. What our recording also 
did, however, was bring polka into the 
hands of a much larger public. 

We make recordings to increase and 
diffuse knowledge about and through 
music and the spoken word. In so doing 
we also contribute to the preservation of 
part of the cuhural heritage of commu- 
nities around the world. Moses Asch, the 
founder of Folkways, once said that he 
was the pen with which his artists creat- 
ed their art. To a certain extent Smith- 
sonian Folkways Recordings is the vehi- 
cle through which individual artists and 
communities contribute to the celebra- 
tion and preservation of their cultural 
heritage. 

You all can participate in this celebra- 
tion and preservation by buying 
Smithsonian Folkways recordings, ask- 
ing your libraries to buy them, enjoying 
them, and keeping them safely. Or you 
can go out and learn a tradition that you 
can pass on yourself. 

Anthony Seeger is curator and director of 
Smithsonian Foll<ways Recordings. 



Today most 
people in the 
world listen to 
more recorded 
performances 
than live ones, 
and recordings 
have become 
one of the means 
through which 
cultural heritage 
is demonstratedy 
celebratedy and 
passed on. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



far beyond the bounds of traditional 
practice. It is impossible to find in the 
world the operation of singular cultural 
systems, untouched by others. Indeed, 
the social world is now characterized by 
the intersection and interpenetration of 
various cultural systems. Local musical 
traditions developed in a South African 
township may reach around the world 
through the electronic media. A local 
tale based on the historical Dracula may 
be radically transformed as it meets the 
imaginations of others. Conversely, pop- 
ular traditions with broad geographic 
and cultural spread may take on partic- 
ular form and meaning in a localized 
context. Yankee and French fiddling, 
meeting in New Hampshire, have devel- 
oped their own distinctive characteris- 
tics and community practices, as have 
traditions of popular democracy in the 
state's distinctive American primary 
electioneering. 

Scholars writing about cultural her- 
itage tend to approach the topic as 
objectivists or processualists. For the 
former, cultural heritage is an objective 
set of cultural items and practices, a cat- 
alog or inventory of cultural features 
associated with a particular people or 
community. This inventory is handed 
down from one generation to the next, 
with some items dropping out from dis- 
use and others being added. For the 
processualists, cultural heritage is some- 
thing invented and continually reinvent- 
ed, a way of defining the cultural prac- 
tices and preferences of a group in the 
present by referencing the past. 
Objectivists tend to stress tradition, 
researching the origins of a particular 
custom or cultural creation, its history, 
social and geographical dispersion, and 
variations in form. Processualists, on the 
other hand, tend to be more concerned 
with traditionalization — how various 
cultural practices, whether old or new, 
are created, adapted, used, and symboli- 
cally manipulated in a community and 
larger social contexts. 

7 



The Festival is not about theatricalized 
folklore or idiosyncratic representations 
of cultural heritage. In privileging the 
cultural community, it seeks connec- 
tions between artistic and cultural 
expressions and the economic and civic 
life of its members. Less an exercise in 
academic definition, the task is to 
understand, present, and encourage 
ongoing cultural creativity — the exten- 



sion of those cultural traditions in a 
dynamic sense by the people who make, 
hold, and nourish that culture. That is, 
one of the aims of the Festival is to en- 
able people to develop and continue to 
develop their own cultural heritage. 

But What Is Development? 

Development also has a history of defin- 
ition. In the 19th century, development 



meant moral and material progress, 
measured along a single, unilineal, 
racialistic scale of cultural evolution. 
The accomplishments of Victorian 
Englishmen were at the top of the scale, 
with various peoples and races accorded 
lesser positions in descending order 
from civilization to barbarism to sav- 
agery The cultural heritage of most peo- 
ple was generally thought to be inimical 



Leona Watson engages 

Miss Etta in an 

impromptu interview 

at the 1991 Virgin 

Islands Folklife 

Festival restaging on 

St. Croix. 

Photo by loan Wolhier 




Conserving and Creating Cultural Heritage: 
The Smithsonian Folklife Festival 

Diana Parker 



The Festival has been called many 
things — an exercise in cultural 
democracy, a living exhibition, a radio 
that tunes in the whole wide world. It is, 
at different times, all of these things. But 
first and foremost, it is a calculated 
strategy to preserve cultural heritage. 

The Festival encourages cultural 
conservation directly. By bringing 
stellar artists to the National Mall and 
presenting them to appreciative audi- 
ences of over a million people, the 
Festival hopes to convey to the tradition 
bearers, and those who follow in their 
footsteps, how important their skills and 



knowledge are to a broad public, and how 
much loved. At a time when "cultural 
grey-out" is a worldwide phenomenon, it 
is critical to remind our cultural ex- 
emplars and their children how impor- 
tant they are to us all. In the words of cul- 
tural activist and folklorist Alan Lomax, 
"The aim of this Festival is not to make 
America proud of its folklore or to put on 
an affair that will please Washington and 
the Smithsonian, but to provide support 
for the big river of oral tradition which is 
now being dissipated and corrupted all 
over the planet. We cannot foresee what 
we would do if we did not have this river 



of pure creativity always revivifying our 
culture, but life would be a very sorry 
thing if it dried up." 

The Festival also encourages grass- 
roots cultural heritage by the method of 
its production. Each year we work closely 
with our counterparts in the communi- 
ties represented on the Mall. Unlike other 
exhibitions in which a curator may select 
the objects to be presented, a Festival 
program is a joint negotiation between 
senior Festival staff and cultural special- 
ists from featured communities. That is, 
people involved in the Festival have to 
figure out how to represent their culture, 
to imagine and present their culture as 
heritage. While this is not the easiest way 
to produce an event for either group, it is 
certainly the most educational. Many 



8 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Cultural Heritage Development 



to development. Development or cultural 
evolution occurred over time, through 
the survival of better social and eco- 
nomic need-meeting practices, through 
borrowing of inventions and innovations 
from more evolved societies, and forced 
imitation through colonialism. This idea 
of development continued with 20th- 
century modernization theory, with cul- 
tural heritage used as a residual category 



groups, having put together the neces- 
sary infrastructure to help us produce 
the Festival, have kept the team together 
to reproduce the event "back home." 
Often, the team then lives beyond the 
"restaging" to continue to work on 
research and presentation. Both Iowa 
from '96 and Wisconsin from '98 have 
staff originally hired for the Festival still 
employed and actively doing critical cul- 
tural conservation work. 

Finally, the Festival also attempts to 
aid in cultural conservation by support- 
ing our participants' attempts at eco- 
nomic viability. At this year's Festival, 
through Smithsonian Folkways record- 
ings, sales of artists' creations at the 
Festival Marketplace, and attempts to 
connect traditional craftspeople with 
larger markets, we work to provide tra- 
dition bearers with the livelihood neces- 
sary to allow them to continue their art. 
This is new territory for us, and we are 
learning how complex and challenging 
it is, but unless people can retain aes- 
thetic, economic, and legal control over 
their artistic forms and receive some 
reward for it, these forms will surely die 
out as people face the necessity of sup- 
porting their families. Indeed, such a 
strategy, like the Festival itself, confirms 
that cultural traditions are vital and 
adaptable, and develop as real, living 
people connect their artistry with life. 

Diana Parker is director of the Smithsonian 
Folkhfe Festival. 



to explain irrationalities in society — 
values and practices that hampered pop- 
ulations from embracing the work ethic, 
consumerism, and efficient, utilitarian 
institutions. World War II demonstrated 
quite clearly that economic development 
did not necessarily mean moral superi- 
ority. And in the post-war world, various 
global accords have established stan- 
dards of development comprising nutri- 

The Festival 
is not about 
theatricalized 
folklore or 
idiosyncratic 
representations 
of cultural her- 
itage. In privileg- 
ing the cultural 
communityy it 
seeks connections 
between artistic 
and cultural 
expressions and 
the economic and 
civic life of its 
members. 



tion, health, and other quality-of-life 
measures, including political, civil, and 
cultural rights — the rights to speak 
one's own language, believe in and prac- 
tice one's own religion, and so on. At this 
point, the end of the 20th century, we 
have witnessed enough alternative 
modes of being developed. Capitalism 
has prospered in the cultural context of 
Japanese values and the social system of 
Hong Kong and southern China. Modern 
art, science, and computer work nowa- 
days come from India. Musical culture 
the world over has grown from the infu- 
sion of African and Latin styles. There is 
no cultural monopoly on development. 

Why Now? 

Cultural heritage has assumed major 
importance in the world today for 
several reasons. 

Politically, issues of cultural identity 
and the cuUural affiliations of transna- 
tional, national, and subnational popula- 
tions are crucial in the definition and 
continuity of national and regional iden- 
tity. The United States experienced the 
so-called cuhure wars in the early 1990s 
and faces future challenges with regard 
to an increasingly diverse population, 
the growth of Latino populations, multi- 
lingual school-age populations, and the 
need to accommodate the differences in 
lifestyles and values among a wide vari- 
ety of groups within a common civic 
framework. The Soviet Union, a former 
superpower, was undermined in part 
because of its failure to deal adequately 
with its diversity of peoples, its varied 
linguistic and ethno-national groups. 
Similar concerns about the relationships 
between mainstream culture and that 
of various marginalized communities 
constituted on the basis of regionality, 
religion, race, language, origin, have 
become political issues in Canada, 
China, Nigeria, Germany, Brazil, Turkey, 
Israel, Mexico, Australia, California, and 
New York City. Policies have varied from 
integrationist to segregationist, from en- 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



couraging complementarity to autono- 
my, from broadening to restricting civil 
rights. How to hold civil society together 
and successfully negotiate varied types 
of cultural difference and similarity are 
the key political questions of the new 
millennium. 

On the economic front, culture has 
become big business. Tourism is the 
world's largest industry, according to the 
World Bank, now surpassing oil. Couple 
the cultural component of tourism with 
the entertainment industry, parts of the 
communications, handicrafts, and other 
industries, and the economic value of 
cultural consumption becomes obvious. 
The cultural economy exists on both a 
local and global scale. The global mass- 
culture industry produces products and 
services for worldwide distribution, 
often competing with and, as Alan 
Lomax long ago warned about, squeez- 
ing out local forms of culture. Inspiring 
both economic envy and intellectual 
approbation, companies like Disney, 
Time Warner, and Discover create and 
distribute cultural products, many of 
which purport to be authentic, educa- 
tional, and socially useful while making 
billions of dollars in profit. On the other 
hand, local cuUural products, at least not 
at first controlled by the mass-culture 
industry, have not only succeeded within 
their communities of origins but have 
gone far beyond them toward worldwide 
distribution. Witness South African 
choral music. Thai food, Dominican 
merengue, Bombay films. With this new 
hyper-global/local economy, issues of 
economic benefits, rights, and opportu- 
nities are becoming increasingly impor- 
tant. The World Bank has initiated a 
cultural heritage and development 
program, giving loans and grants to 
governments to utilize cultural resources 
in ways that will generate income and 
alleviate poverty. Others can be expected 
to follow suit, challenging industry 
giants or finding niche markets as cul- 
tural products assume value in an infor- 

10 



mation-age service economy The chal- 
lenge: how to be true to one's culture 
while at the same time making money in 
order to sustain it. 

Contemporary Strategies 
FOR Cultural Heritage 
Development 

Nation-states may undertake activities 
that do encourage cultural heritage 
development at a local, regional, or 
national level. They may also discourage 
such development, regarding the cultur- 
al heritage of certain of their citizens as 
problematic or against the interests of 
the state. Nation-states including the 
United States use a variety of methods 
to affect cultural heritage development, 
from direct subsidies and support to 
artists, scholars, and institutions such as 
university departments, archives, and 
museums, to tax credits for donors for 
preserving historical property and other 
cultural resources; copyright protection; 
the development of cultural tourism; 
and other programs. While state policy 
and programs may help or hinder devel- 
opment, they are becoming less influen- 
tial. Decreasing public expenditures for 
culture worldwide, the expansion of the 
multinational corporate culture indus- 
try, privatization initiatives, and new 
global technologies indicate that, if peo- 
ple are to have some control over the 
fate of their own culture, they are going 
to have to take responsibility for their 
own cultural development. The follow- 
ing are integral elements of a communi- 
ty-based cultural heritage development 
strategy. 

Cultural Enterprise. Not all aspects of 
a community's culture are commercially 
exploitable, nor should they be. Many 
religious and sacred expressions, inti- 
mate familial practices, and aspects of 
interpersonal cuhural conduct and com- 
munication are not likely to have market 
value. But many other forms of culture 
— handicrafts, decorative arts, musical 
performances, buildings and cultural 



sites, for example — have long been 
subject to commercial activity, tradition- 
ally and within the community Think, 
for example, of pilgrimage sites that, 
while encapsulating deep spirituality 
and religious practice, are, in many 
cases, centers of commerce in sacred 
arts, food, performance, and festivity. 
The list of commercially exploitable cul- 
tural products is expanding in the infor- 
mation age. Stories can be turned into 
novels, poetry, cartoons, and feature 
films. Indigenous knowledge can fuel 
research in the development of nature- 
based pharmaceuticals. Musical perfor- 
mances can become hit recordings in 
the entertainment industry Historic 
sites can become destinations for mil- 
lions of tourists from around the globe. 
Local communities and culture produc- 
ers need to obtain the means of cultural 
production and distribute, market, and 
benefit from their own production. 
Makers of crafts, who typically earn ten 
cents on the consumer dollar, need to be 
closer to those consumers in order to 
realize more profit. Musicians need to 
establish their copyrights and receive 
royalties. Local people have to control 
their own cultural tourism industries. 
Cultural projects will require capitaliza- 
tion, loans, and income-generating rev- 
enue streams to support activities. 
Self-Study and Representation. 
Good research is indispensable for cul- 
tural heritage development projects. 
Assessments of needs, resources, previ- 
ous and comparative work, feasibility 
studies, and evaluations can help assure 
successful work. Stakeholders are likely 
to be more involved, committed, and 
interested in undertaking purposeful, 
community-oriented research projects 
than those more removed. The partici- 
patory research of those involved, and 
the research of lay and academic com- 
munity scholars, is an important re- 
source that increasingly can be relied 
upon to gather, analyze, and evaluate 
information. Such research can form the 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Cultural Heritage Development 



basis for local researchers and others in 
the community to develop high-quality 
cultural heritage productions — educa- 
tional materials for schools, radio pro- 
grams, books, exhibits, cultural tourism 
sites, performance programs, World 
Wide Web pages — that will represent 
them both within the community and 
well beyond. 



a network. 

Upgrading of Techniques and 
Technology. New, innovative techniques 
may be used to help keep a culture alive. 
Computerized databases help preserve 
and teach ancient, endangered lan- 
guages. Inexpensive tape recorders and 
video cameras can help document cul- 
tural traditions. Electronic bulletin 



How to hold civil society together 
and successfully negotiate varied 
types of cultural difference and 
similarity are the key political 
questions of the new millennium. 



Community Institution-Building. 

Community organizing and institutional- 
ization above and beyond formal govern- 
ment agencies are critical in sustaining 
cultural heritage efforts. Citizens commit- 
tees, non-governmental organizations, 
cooperatives, and other forms are entirely 
appropriate. Indeed, increased access to 
technology and information allows all 
sorts of communities to establish cultural 
centers — virtual and real — to publish 
and disseminate information, and engage 
in all sorts of activities. Community insti- 
tution-building provides continuity and 
mechanisms of local control over cultural 
heritage development. 

Networking. Community efforts need 
not and should not stop at the bound- 
aries of that community or reside solely 
in its own organizations. Connections to 
transnational, national, and regional 
organizations can be a conduit to mone- 
tary, advisory, technical, and in-kind 
resources. Common cause may be made 
with other similarly situated or interest- 
ed communities. Funding, political sup- 
port, and audiences may be mobilized 
through the use of interpersonal and 
electronic communications along such 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



boards can help geographically dis- 
persed community members keep in 
touch. Web pages allowing for encrypted 
fiscal transactions can allow craftspeo- 
ple and musicians to bring their prod- 
ucts to very broad markets. Cultural 
organizations may adapt techniques of 
business management and marketing, 
not so much to increase profits but to 
rationalize operations to achieve sus- 
tainability The adaptation of such tech- 
niques and technologies does not neces- 
sarily change the culture for the worse 
— and may enhance the dissemination 
of traditions, as was the case with radio 
and recordings for much traditional 
music in various nations. 

Articulation across Sectors. 
Cultural heritage does not exist in isola- 
tion from other aspects of life. Indeed, it 
develops in concert with, in juxtaposi- 
tion to, in opposition against, as the 
expressive forerunner of civic life, politi- 
cal events, economic systems, ecological 
relationships, psychological patterning, 
and socialization. Cuhural heritage plans 
need to be articulated with the non-cul- 
tural sectors of society in order to be 
effective. Cultural work implicates politi- 



cal action, economic activity, impacts 
upon the environment, and so on. 
Strategic planning with institutions of 
these other sectors is necessary for sys- 
temic, sustainable, and significant cul- 
tural heritage development. 

My sense is that various types of 
communities will increase their 
attempts to articulate, buttress, and 
expand their cultural heritage as a vehi- 
cle for making their way in the world — 
at the national level but also at the sub- 
national and transnational levels, and 
among the widest variety of cultural 
communities. As this occurs, human 
cultural products — like artistry, 
knowledge, symbolic elaboration, and 
meaning — will be ever more crucial in 
defining value. Recognizing these intan- 
gibles as resources of and for the com- 
munity and its broader reaches will in 
itself be an interesting task and a wor- 
thy objective of cultural workers and 
institutions. It is sometimes hard to rec- 
ognize what is so near as so valuable, 
but it is an important tlrst step in keep- 
ing a variety of cultures a vital force in 
human affairs. 

Richard Kurin is director of the Smithsonian 
Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. A 
Fulbright scholar and cultural anthropologist 
with a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, 
he has taught Social Change and Develop- 
ment at the Johns Hopkins University Nitze 
School of Advanced International Studies 
and Public Cultural Work at the George 
Washington University. He is the author of 
Reflections of a Culture Broker: A View 
from the Smithsonian and Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival: Culture Of, By, and For the 
People. He first worked on the Festival in 
1976, and was awarded the Smithsonian 
Secretary's Gold Medal for Exceptional 
Service in 1996. 



11 



Celebrating New Hampshire's Stories 



This program is produced 

with the New Hampshire Commission on 

the Smithsonian Folklife Festival and its 

non-profit affiliate Celebrate New 

Hampshire Culture in partnership with 

the New Hampshire State Council on the 

Arts, Department of Cultural Resources. 

The presenting sponsor is Bell Atlantic. 

Other major sponsors include Fleet Bank 

NH; Healthsource New Hampshire, A 

CIGNA Healthcare Company; Public 

Service of New Hampshire; Sanders, A 

Lockheed Martin Company; Tyco 

International Ltd.; the State of New 

Hampshire; Fidelity Investments; 

Fisher Scientific International Inc.; and 

The Recording Industries Music 

Performance Trust Funds. 




12 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Celebrating 
New Hampshire's Stories 

Lynn Martin and Betty Belanus 



Everyone in New Hampshire has a 
story to tell. When people think of 
a "storyteller," they often think of 
a polished performer with a repertoire 
of time-honored recitations, legends of 
the past, or tales of great imagination. In 
New Hampshire, storytellers are often 
everyday people with a gift for language 
and a wealth of human experiences. 
They come from every walk of life — 
the logger down the road, the fellow you 
go snowmobiling with on the weekends, 
your co-worker at the woolen mill, or 
someone whose music you dance to at 
the town hall. 

During the research for New Hamp- 
shire's presentation at the Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival, fieldworkers inter- 
viewed over 450 individuals practicing a 
variety of traditional musical forms, 
crafts, and cooking and occupational 
skills. All of them shared stories that 
warmed the heart — stories with 
lessons about the environment, the way 
the past teaches us about the future, and 
the importance of community values. 
The stories reflect the strong sense of 
individualism in New Hampshire as well 
as people's desire to work together 
toward a common goal. 

These stories are often full of colorful 
characters and people who helped shape 
the personality of a town or region. They 
paint pictures of daily life at home and at 
work — memorable moments with fam- 
ily and friends, dangerous encounters, or 
funny episodes. These stories are part of 
a larger heritage of language, poetry, and 
publishing much cherished in New 
Hampshire. The love of English is echoed 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




in the writings of New England-born 
writers such as Daniel Webster, who 
crafted Webster's Dictionary, Sarah 
Josepha Hale, who wrote Mary Had a 
Little Lamb and was the editor for the 
first woman's magazine from 1828 to 
1836; New Hampshire's contemporary 
poet laureate Donald Hall and past laure- 
ate Jane Kenyon. Visiting writers have 
found inspiration in the abundance of 
natural resources in New Hampshire. 
Robert Frost wrote a wealth of poems 
celebrating the state. Thornton Wilder 
wrote the play Our Town based on the 
picturesque town of Peterborough, which 
is the home of the MacDowell Colony, a 
retreat for writers and artists. 

The heritage of the spoken word is 
celebrated in New Hampshire's Festival 
program. Celebrating New Hampshire's 
Stories, but stories are also told through 
crafts, recipes, music and dance, and 
occupational skills. The "Music of New 
Hampshire" component of the program 
honors the musical heritage of Yankee, 
Franco-American, Polish, Scottish, Irish, 
Jewish, African-American, and Hispanic 
communities. The "Home, Town, and 
Community" area focuses on the cultur- 
al traditions that define New Hamp- 
shire's sense of place. Domestic and reli- 
gious crafts and the important political 
heritage of New Hampshire — the com- 
munity voice of town meeting and the 
national precedence of the first-in-the- 
country presidential primary — are 
explored in this area. 

"Ingenuity and Enterprise" examines 
the inventive nature of industry and 
small businesses in New Hampshire. 
The heritage of family-owned and 
community-based businesses and the 
way in which fine craftsmen network 
through guilds are presented. "Seasonal 
Work and Recreation" explores the 
cycle of the seasons and the love of the 
outdoors in New Hampshire, giving 
rise to the work culture and traditional 
crafts of recreation. "Farm, Forest, 
Mountain, and Sea" takes a look at the 

14 



occupations that have emerged from 
the state's diverse natural resources. 
These stories of some of the partici- 
pants in each of these areas will tell you 
something about New Hampshire, its 
spirit, and its people. 

Hugh Fifield 

Hugh Fifield of Canterbury was inter- 



the township of Canterbury to his inde- 
pendent logging operation run with 
draft horses. Today, Hugh keeps busy 
logging in the woods, collecting maple 
sap, giving hay rides for local communi- 
ty groups, caring for his animals, and 
visiting with his large family 

Hugh's stories often feature his dry 
sense of humor and teasing nature. One 




viewed by folklorist Jill Linzee for a pro- 
ject initiated by the Vermont Folklife 
Center on New England storytelling, 
which paralleled our fieldwork efforts in 
New Hampshire. She was taken by his 
"quintessential Yankee" nature as he 
regaled her with tales of interesting 
characters he had met and things he had 
done in his life. 

Hugh's rugged hands tell the story of a 
man who has worked outdoors his entire 
life — from years on the road crew for 



of his favorite jokes pokes gentle fun at 
his wife Dolores, who was a "city girl" 
when they married and didn't even 
know how to light a wood fire for heat 
and cooking. He related the following 
incident from Canterbury Town Meeting 
during his days as town road agent: 

You got axes to grind, that's the place 
to do it. And, usually, we got to argu- 
ing over something. The budget ran 
from January first to January first, a 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Celebrating New Hampshire's Stories 



year, so in the fall, like November and 
December, you didn't know whether 
it was going to snow three feet or not 
get any snow, so you had to kind of 
watch, save money in your budget. If 
it worked out, I might have three or 
four thousand dollars left in my bud- 
get. I had this guy get up, and he 
couldn't figure out why I had money 




r Galina Tregubov from Claremont, 

seen here with her son, embroiders 

elaborate Russian Orthodox icons. 

To the delight of the Russian 

community in the state, she has 

updated this art which dates back 

to the 1 0th century with a sort of Yankee 

ingenuity: instead of the traditional fragile 

silk thread, she uses practical and durable 

pearl cotton embroidery floss. 

Photo by Jill Linzee ^ 



left in the budget, and he figured I 
didn't do my job — his road could've 
used that three thousand dollars. So, I 
had to get up and tell him, "We've got 
to spend what we got, we can't spend 
what we ain't got." (Pause) But, that 
was usually a lawyer, that got up and 
did that. 



Paul Doherty 

Paul Doherty grew up in southwestern 
New Hampshire, but his heart always 
belonged to the northern woods. As a 
lad, he learned to hunt and fish from 
several local outdoorsmen, who were 
also notorious characters. For many 
years, he served as a state conservation 
officer in the northern district of the 
state, and settled in Gorham. His fasci- 
nation with the newfangled "snow 
machine" — later known as the snow- 
mobile — led him to head the Bureau of 
Off-Highway Vehicles. 

Throughout his career, he sought out 
old-timers and colorful individuals, lis- 
tening to their stories and absorbing 
their wisdom. Today, at 80, he still enjoys 
the North Woods in all seasons and still 
has an ear for a good story. Paul was 
interviewed twice during our documen- 
tation process, once by folklorist Kate 
Dodge, who researched snowmobiling 
traditions, and once by folklorist Jessica 
Payne for the storytelling project. But it 
is his self-published book. Smoke from a 
Thousand Campfires, that yielded the fol- 
lowing humorous tale: 

I have always liked the story about the 
man who hunted long and hard but 
never saw a deer. He came home one 
afternoon and saw a freshly dressed 
out doe hanging in the garage. 
Rushing in the house, he demanded 
an explanation from his wife. "Where 
did that deer come from?" he sput- 
tered. "Well, I'll tell you," she said, 
"every year you go hunting, you spend 
lots of money on red outfits, ammuni- 
tion, guns and a license. Today I went 
to town shopping and that deer ran 
out in the road and I hit it. I didn't do 
any damage to the car, but I killed the 
deer. The nice Game Warden came 
along, dressed it out, hauled it home, 
and hung it for me. I didn't even need 
a gun or license to serve you liver and 
onions for supper." 



Community Projects: 
Newport and Portsmouth 

During the research phase for the Festi- 
val, the curators became aware of com- 
munity projects that involved the creative 
and artistic interpretation of oral histo- 
ries and folklore. A multifaceted project 
in Newport, a former textile mill town 
and a center for the precision machine 
tool industry, turned oral history into 
poetry with the help of poet Verandah 
Porche. During the Portsmouth Shipyard 
Project, initiated by the Portsmouth 
Music Hall, workers at the shipyard, 
where submarines are repaired and 
overhauled, joined the Washington, D.C.- 
based Liz Lerman Dance Exchange in an 
interpretation of their occupational folk- 
lore and history. Both projects involved 
schoolchildren, reinforcing the impor- 
tance of a connection between the gener- 
ations. These projects will be part of the 
"Ingenuity and Enterprise" portion of the 
Festival program. 

The stories collected in Newport, in 
Porche's words, "make the ancient con- 
nection between a text woven of voices 
and textiles in a town where thousands 
of hands drove the looms." The commu- 
nity spirit and strong work ethic of 
Newport were also addressed in an exhi- 
bition on the machine tool industry 
organized by Patryc Wiggins. The fol- 
lowing story, collected from Clarice 
"Babe" Frye for the book Self-Portraits in 
Newport, tells of an earlier time on 
Sunapee Street, one of the main streets 
through town: 

I was three years old when we moved 
to Sunapee Street. 0, 1 tell you, that 
was something else again. When my 
father and mother had to go out and 
leave us kids, all the neighbors took 
care of us and made sure we behaved 
ourselves. We had all ethnic groups, 
Greeks, Finnish, Polish, and there were 
two families who didn't know who 
they were, Americans, I guess. Most of 
the kids at dusk would come outside 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



15 



Celebrating New Hampshire's Stories 



in the writings of New England-born 
writers such as Daniel Webster, who 
crafted Webster's Dictionary; Sarah 
Josepha Hale, who wrote Mary Had a 
Little Lamb and was the editor for the 
first woman's magazine from 1828 to 
1836; New Hampshire's contemporary 
poet laureate Donald Hall and past laure- 
ate Jane Kenyon. Visiting writers have 
found inspiration in the abundance of 
natural resources in New Hampshire. 
Robert Frost wrote a wealth of poems 
celebrating the state. Thornton Wilder 
wrote the play Our Town based on the 
picturesque town of Peterborough, which 
is the home of the MacDowell Colony, a 
retreat for writers and artists. 

The heritage of the spoken word is 
celebrated in New Hampshire's Festival 
program, Celebrating New Hampshire's 
Stories, but stories are also told through 
crafts, recipes, music and dance, and 
occupational skills. The "Music of New 
Hampshire" component of the program 
honors the musical heritage of Yankee, 
Franco-American, Polish, Scottish, Irish, 
Jewish, African-American, and Hispanic 
communities. The "Home, Town, and 
Community" area focuses on the cultur- 
al traditions that define New Hamp- 
shire's sense of place. Domestic and reli- 
gious crafts and the important political 
heritage of New Hampshire — the com- 
munity voice of town meeting and the 
national precedence of the first-in-the- 
country presidential primary — are 
explored in this area. 

"Ingenuity and Enterprise" examines 
the inventive nature of industry and 
small businesses in New Hampshire. 
The heritage of family-owned and 
community-based businesses and the 
way in which fine craftsmen network 
through guilds are presented. "Seasonal 
Work and Recreation" explores the 
cycle of the seasons and the love of the 
outdoors in New Hampshire, giving 
rise to the work culture and traditional 
crafts of recreation. "Farm, Forest, 
Mountain, and Sea" takes a look at the 

14 



occupations that have emerged from 
the state's diverse natural resources. 
These stories of some of the partici- 
pants in each of these areas will tell you 
something about New Hampshire, its 
spirit, and its people. 

Hugh Fifield 

Hugh Fifield of Canterbury was inter- 



the township of Canterbury to his inde- 
pendent logging operation run with 
draft horses. Today, Hugh keeps busy 
logging in the woods, collecting maple 
sap, giving hay rides for local communi- 
ty groups, caring for his animals, and 
visiting with his large family 

Hugh's stories often feature his dry 
sense of humor and teasing nature. One 



year, so in the fall, like November and 
December, you didn't know whether 
it was going to snow three feet or not 
get any snow, so you had to kind of 
watch, save money in your budget. If 
it worked out, I might have three or 
four thousand dollars left in my bud- 
get. I had this guy get up, and he 
couldn't figure out why I had money 




viewed by folklorist Jill Linzee for a pro- 
ject initiated by the Vermont Folklife 
Center on New England storytelling, 
which paralleled our fieldwork efforts in 
New Hampshire. She was taken by his 
"quintessential Yankee" nature as he 
regaled her with tales of interesting 
characters he had met and things he had 
done in his life. 

Hugh's rugged hands tell the story of a 
man who has worked outdoors his entire 
life — from years on the road crew for 



of his favorite jokes pokes gentle fun at 
his wife Dolores, who was a "city girl" 
when they married and didn't even 
know how to light a wood fire for heat 
and cooking. He related the following 
incident from Canterbury Town Meeting 
during his days as town road agent: 

You got axes to grind, that's the place 
to do it. And, usually, we got to argu- 
ing over something. The budget ran 
from January first to January first, a 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



left in the budget, and he figured I 
didn't do my job — his road could've 
used that three thousand dollars. So, I 
had to get up and tell him, "We've got 
to spend what we got, we can't spend 
what we ain't got." (Pause) But, that 
was usually a lawyer, that got up and 
did that. 



Paul Doherty 

Paul Doherty grew up in southwestern 
New Hampshire, but his heart always 
belonged to the northern woods. As a 
lad, he learned to hunt and fish from 
several local outdoorsmen, who were 
also notorious characters. For many 
years, he served as a state conservation 
officer in the northern district of the 
state, and settled in Gorham. His fasci- 
nation with the newfangled "snow 
machine" — later known as the snow- 
mobile — led him to head the Bureau of 
Off-Highway Vehicles. 

Throughout his career, he sought out 
old-timers and colorful individuals, lis- 
tening to their stories and absorbing 
their wisdom. Today, at 80, he still enjoys 
the North Woods in all seasons and still 
has an ear for a good story. Paul was 
interviewed twice during our documen- 
tation process, once by folklorist Kate 
Dodge, who researched snowmobiling 
traditions, and once by folklorist Jessica 
Payne for the storytelling project. But it 
is his self-published book, Smol(.efrom a 
Thousand Campftres, that yielded the fol- 
lowing humorous tale: 

I have always liked the story about the 
man who hunted long and hard but 
never saw a deer He came home one 
afternoon and saw a freshly dressed 
out doe hanging in the garage. 
Rushing in the house, he demanded 
an explanation from his wife. "Where 
did that deer come from?" he sput- 
tered. "Well, I'll tell you," she said, 
"every year you go hunting, you spend 
lots of money on red outfits, ammuni- 
tion, guns and a license. Today I went 
to town shopping and that deer ran 
out in the road and I hit it. I didn't do 
any damage to the car, but I killed the 
deer. The nice Game Warden came 
along, dressed it out, hauled it home, 
and hung it for me. I didn't even need 
a gun or license to serve you liver and 
onions for supper." 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Community Proiects: 
Newport and Portsmouth 

During the research phase for the Festi- 
val, the curators became aware of com- 
munity projects that involved the creative 
and artistic interpretation of oral histo- 
ries and folklore. A multifaceted project 
in Newport, a former textile mill town 
and a center for the precision machine 
tool industry, turned oral history into 
poetry with the help of poet Verandah 
Porche. During the Portsmouth Shipyard 
Project, initiated by the Portsmouth 
Music Hall, workers at the shipyard, 
where submarines are repaired and 
overhauled, joined the Washington, D.C.- 
based Liz Lerman Dance Exchange in an 
interpretation of their occupational folk- 
lore and history. Both projects involved 
schoolchildren, reinforcing the impor- 
tance of a connection between the gener- 
ations. These projects will be part of the 
"Ingenuity and Enterprise" portion of the 
Festival program. 

The stories collected in Newport, in 
Porche's words, "make the ancient con- 
nection between a text woven of voices 
and textiles in a town where thousands 
of hands drove the looms." The commu- 
nity spirit and strong work ethic of 
Newport were also addressed in an exhi- 
bition on the machine tool industry 
organized by Patryc Wiggins. The fol- 
lowing story, collected from Clarice 
"Babe" Frye for the book Self-Portraits in 
Newport, tells of an earlier time on 
Sunapee Street, one of the main streets 
through town: 

I was three years old when we moved 
to Sunapee Street. 0, 1 tell you, that 
was something else again. When my 
father and mother had to go out and 
leave us kids, all the neighbors took 
care of us and made sure we behaved 
ourselves. We had all ethnic groups, 
Greeks, Finnish, Polish, and there were 
two families who didn't know who 
they were, Americans, I guess. Most of 
the kids at dusk would come outside 

15 



our house and play games, Hide and 
Seek, and stuff like that, Giant Steps. 
Most everybody spoke English. If they 
got mad at us, they could swear at us 
in their language, and it wouldn't 
make a difference. 

Dudley Laufman 
AND Bob McQuillen 

Two of the most active individuals in 
traditional social dancing in New 
Hampshire are Dudley Laufman and 
Bob McQuillen. Both have been playing 
music in the state for over 50 years. 
Dudley was born in Newton, Massachu- 
setts, in 1931 and came to New 
Hampshire in 1947 to work at Mistwold 
Dairy Farm, Fremont, where he was 



shared this one about the first time he 
met Bob McQuillen: 

1 went to Norfolk County Agricultural 
School and went to the New England 
Folk Festival back in the days when it 
was held on the fifth floor of the 
YWCA on Clarendon Street in 
Boston. Bob McQuillen had come 
down from Dublin; in fact, in those 
days he was living in New Boston. He 
was all dressed in white and he had a 
great big old Wurlitzer accordion. 

Back in those days Bob's hair was 
blacker than it is now, but it was still 
streaked with gray, and he was only 
in his 20s. He was an ex-Marine, he 
had tattoos on his biceps, and he was 



[These] stories reflect the strong sense 
of individualism in New Hampshire as 
well as people's desire to work 
together toward a common goal. 



exposed to New Hampshire traditional 
dances. Many musicians got their start 
in Dudley's first group, called The Can- 
terbury Country Dance Orchestra. Along 
with his partner Jacqueline, Dudley 
focuses on bringing back many of what 
he refers to as New England barn dances. 

Bob McQuillen was born in Peter- 
borough, New Hampshire. Known for his 
steady, rhythmic piano playing, he is 
also a prolific composer of tunes, 1,003 
of which appear in a series of self-pub- 
lished tune books called Bob's Notebooks. 
His first New Hampshire-based group 
was called New England Tradition. 
Today he plays with Deanna Stiles and 
Jane Orzechowski in a group called Old 
New England. 

In such a small state, it is inevitable 
that two such musical giants would have 
great stories about their times together. 
At a recent recording session Dudley 

16 



a big fellar, and he made a lot of 
noise. Not only with his accordion, 
but he whooped and he hollered, and 
everybody loved him. 

When the festival was over, we all 
trooped down the stairs, and Bob 
was leading, and he had his accor- 
dion, and he was sort of playing and 
whistling, and we went right out onto 
the street. Our car was parked up on 
the right, and evidently Bob's truck 
was out on the left. And we went out 
the door, and my mother, my father, 
my sister, and myself — we all auto- 
matically just followed Bob right on 
down the street — forgetting that 
our car was up the other side. That 
was the effect that he had on me as a 
little kid. 

We hope that, like the mesmerizing 
effect Bob McQuillen's music had on 



Dudley Laufman, the stories that the 
New Hampshire participants have to 
share at the Festival will captivate visi- 
tors with their honesty, wit, and wisdom. 

Suggested Reading 

Doherty, Paul T. 1992. Smoke from a 
Thousand Campftres. Berlin, N.H.: 
Smith & Town Printers. 

"The Music Hall's Shipyard Project." 
1996. Portsmouth, N.H. Program 
book with historic photos, stories, 
and interviews. 

Porche, Veranda. 1998. SPIN (Self- 

Portraits in Newport). Published as 
part of the New England Arts Trust 
Congress IV, Newport, N.H. 

Information about the Vermont Folklife 
Center's New England Storytelling 
Project can be obtained by calling 
the Center at (802) 338-2694. 

Betty J. Belanus is an education specialist at 
the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage 
and has been working on the Festival since 
1986. The New Hampshire program is the 
third program she has co-curated; she went 
solo on two others. j 

Lynn Martin is traditional arts coordinator j 

for the New Hampshire State Council on the i 

Arts in Concord. She formerly held a similar i 

position in Hawai'ifor 15 years and has pub- i 

lished numerous articles, exhibition catalogs, t 

and audio recordings on traditional cuhure. i 

Despite the drastic change in weather, she has j 

enjoyed learning about the traditions of her t 
adopted state during this project. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



New Hampshire's 
Cultural Landscape 



James L Garvin 



New Hampshire is a museum of 
its own history. About 10,000 
people hved here in 1730, after 
a century of European settlement. The 
states population has grown to over a 
million, yet things that were familiar to 
the people of 1730 can still be seen 
today, along with everything that has 
accumulated since. 

The history of New Hampshire, like that 
of much of the United States, is a story of 
initial settlement, the clearing and cultiva- 
tion of the land, the rise of industry, the 
arrival of new immigrants from many 
parts of the world, the decline of small- 
scale farming, the growth of tourism, and 
the advent of a service economy. 

The landscape here is a gift of nature, 
great in beauty but meager in fruitful- 
ness. The states lofty mountains have 
slopes too steep and soil too thin to yield 
any crop but timber Its innumerable 
streams flow too rapidly to form flood 
plains with rich, level land. The soil is fer- 
tile but so filled with glacial debris that 
the most permanent record of three cen- 
turies of farming is written in thousands 
of miles of stone walls. New Hampshire's 
cool, salubrious summers are counterbal- 
anced by long, cold winters that drive 
frost three feet into the ground. 

Over nearly 400 years, with immense 
human labor and ingenuity, New Hamp- 
shire people have transformed their nat- 
ural environment. Setders in the 1 7th 
century began the generations-long task 
of subduing the forest, making wood 
products our first great export. New 
Hampshire pine supplied masts for the 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



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Located northeast of Lake Winnipesaukee, the town of Tamworth has a beautiful complex of typical 
18th-century buildings, including a town hall and a church. The Remmick Country Doctor Museum, 
with its historic farm buildings, adds to the historic character of the town. Photo by Lynn Mcirlin 



Royal Navy and houses for the Carib- 
bean; oak made ships and casks. New 
Hampshire people became masters of 
the use of wood, and this skifl remains 
powerful today. 

New Hampshire became a place of 
farms, part of a New England that 
increasingly resembled old England. By 
1830, 80 percent of New Hampshire's land 
was under cultivation. But the northern 
forest does not submit permanently to 
the plow; it regenerates itself Woodlands 
have reclaimed much of New Hampshire 
as farming has declined. Today, New 
Hampshire is over 80 percent forested. 
Products from a renewed and husbanded 
forest still represent one of New 
Hampshire's great industries and exports. 

People learned to split and shape the 
stone that lay everywhere in the "Granite 
State." Beginning in the 1780s with the 



glacial boulders that litter the landscape, 
stonecutters began to transform granite 
into building materials. By 1840, quarry- 
men had begun to penetrate solid 
ledges, discovering stone of many colors 
and grains. The most famous is Concord 
granite, one of the whitest in the world, 
with a fineness that tempts the hand of 
the sculptor. The state capitol was built 
from Concord granite in 1819; so was 
the Library of Congress in 1890. New 
Hampshire retains a powerful role in 
America's granite industry today. 

New Hampshire learned to use the cold 
of its long winters. Before the advent of 
the railroad in the 1840s, it was during 
the winter that most of New Hampshire's 
produce found its way to market on 
horse-drawn sledges over frozen roads 
and snow. Until the development of 
mechanical refrigeration in the 20th cen- 

17 



tury, the ice of New Hampshire's pure 
lakes was cut into thick cakes and sent by 
rail or ship to cool the food and drink of 
Boston, New York, Savannah, and even 
India and South Africa. 

Scandinavian immigrants of the late 
19th century discovered the greatest 
economic value of New Hampshire's 
winters. Norwegians, Swedes, and Finns 
introduced skiing into a land that had 
known only Indian snowshoes, trans- 
forming New Hampshire's snow-covered 
mountain slopes into one of the first 
winter resort areas of the United States. 

But more than any of nature's other 
gifts, New Hampshire came to value its 
water. Beginning in the 1630s with the 
construction of some of the first water- 
powered sawmills in North America, New 
Hampshire people learned how to har- 
ness the power of lakes and streams. By 
the 1820s, New Hampshire millwrights 
and engineers had begun to dam and 
control even the largest rivers. Immense 
water wheels and systems of pulleys and 
belts were constructed to power spindles 
and looms. Brick mills were built that 
surpassed any structures ever seen in 
North America. 

New Hampshire's industrial develop- 
ment made the state an internationally 
recognized center of textile production. 
The Amoskeag mills of Manchester grew 
to become the world's largest single tex- 
tile manufacturing complex. By 1870, 
New Hampshire had become one of the 
nation's most heavily industrialized 
states in proportion to its population. It 
remains so. Industry's ever-increasing 
demand for labor brought wave after 
wave of immigrants in the 19th and early 
20th centuries, enriching and diversify- 
ing New Hampshire's population. Mas- 
tery of the many skills needed to manu- 
facture cloth earned New Hampshire a 
high reputation in engineering, in the 
production of foundry products, in the 
machine tool industry, and in power 
generation and transmission. 

But the rise of industry was counter- 

18 



balanced by the decline of farming. Tired 
of fighting stony soil and short growing 
seasons, the children of New Hampshire's 
farms moved west by the thousands after 
the Civil War, or turned to nearby cities 
and mills. By the late 1800s, New Hamp- 
shire witnessed the abandonment of 
farms on a frightening scale. 
Turning a crisis into an opportunity 



ment. The tourist boom that was launched 
in the 1890s has grown to represent New 
Hampshire's second-largest industry 

New Hampshire townships, the basic 
units of government in New Hampshire, 
are filled with dispersed farmsteads and 
homes. Nearly every township has 
somewhere within it a town hall, a place 
where the inhabitants gather one or more 




Above: The double-arched Carr Bridge in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, is a 
remarkable example of dry masonry stone work. A double-arched bridge 
allows for the necessary volume of water to flow through and still keeps the 
height of the bridge consistent with the roadbed. The granite was probably 
cut from deposits right by the river. Plwlo by Lynn Martin 

Right: Floating in a pond, logs dusted with a November snow wait to be 
pulled into Garland Mills, one of the few water-powered sawmills remaining 
in New Hampshire. Built in 1856, it is located north of the White Mountains 

in Lancaster. Photo by Lynn Martin 



State government allied itself with hun- 
dreds of farmers, boarding house propri- 
etors, and hotel operators to make New 
Hampshire a tourist destination. Capital- 
izing on the state's beautiful scenery and 
healthful climate, promoters conveyed an 
image of New Hampshire as a place of 
wholesome rest and recreation. "Old 
Home Week," introduced in 1899, enticed 
those who had moved elsewhere to return 
to New Hampshire, perhaps for just one 
week. Yet the memory of that single week 
moved many a visitor to buy an aban- 
doned farm or build a lakeside "camp" as 
a place of yearly summertime refresh- 



times each year to express "the will of the i 
town" in the purest form of democracy | 
known in North America. But the village 5 
is the characteristic element in any town- ; 
ship. The village may reflect 18th-century j 
origins, perhaps with a common, a ' 

church, and a cluster of private dwellings 
and former stores or taverns. It may be 
the creation of the railroad, perhaps with 
brick business blocks, a depot, and a 
freight house. It may be a place of manu- 
facture, with a great brick mill set next to 
a stream and a cluster of boarding houses 
and private homes tor mill workers. 
New Hampshire was a place of reli- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



New Hampshire's Cultural Landscape 



gious foment in the early 1800s, with 
several sects being founded here, includ- 
ing the Free- Will Baptists and the 
Seventh-Day Adventists. But since colo- 
nial days, each New Hampshire town had 
also had an established church, support- 
ed by taxation. This practice ended with 
passage of the "Toleration Act" in 1819. 
Shortly thereafter, church buildings of 



state to authorize its towns to raise money 
by taxation to support such libraries. In 
1891, it became the first state to provide 
state assistance to any town choosing to 
create a public library In 1895, it required 
every town to establish a library unless 
the electorate voted each year not to do so. 
Away from the city and the village, the 
land in New Hampshire, like the soil of 




many sects, built by congregations that 
had been freed from support of the old 
established church, began to replace 
colonial meeting houses. It is thus no 
accident that New Hampshire villages are 
filled with church buildings that date 
from the 1820s, the 1830s, and later. 

The most impressive building in many 
New Hampshire villages is the free public 
library New Hampshire claimed the first 
public libraries in the United States with 
the establishment of a free public library 
in Dublin in 1822 and a fully tax-support- 
ed public library in Peterborough in 1833. 
In 1849, New Hampshire became the first 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



an ancient civilization, holds evidence of 
more than one stratum of human occu- 
pancy. The forest floor is pockmarked 
with half-filled cellar holes from the age 
of settlement. Roadways are flanked by 
stone walls that restrained long-departed 
herds, stone-lined wells, the foundations 
of barns, and broken milldams whose 
streams have reverted to a wild state. 
This, too, is part of the cultural land- 
scape of New Hampshire, revealing itself 
only to the sensitive and experienced eye. 
In certain locations, that eye may also 
discern traces of the villages and fishing 
sites of a still earlier people who watched 



the first European ships land on the New 
Hampshire coast in the 1620s. 

Constant change is written in New 
Hampshire's cultural landscape. But one 
image has persisted for many genera- 
tions. Outsiders and inhabitants alike 
often regard New Hampshire as an 
almost mythical place of natural beauty 
and rectitude, a place where hard work, 
intelligence, and character will be 
rewarded with happiness. It is no acci- 
dent that Thoreau, imagining one place 
in New England that was still filled with 
possibility, pointed to "a New Hamp- 
shire, everlasting and unfallen." 

Suggested Reading 

Gilmore, Robert C. 1981. New Hampshire 
Literature: A Sampler of Writings. 
Hanover, N.H.: University Press of 
New England. 

Hall, Donald. 1987. Seasons at Eagle 
Pond. New York: Ticknor and Fields. 

Heffernan, Nancy C, and Ann Page Stecker. 
1986. New Hampshire: Crosscurrents in 
Its Development. Grantham, N.H.: 
Tompson & Rutter, Inc. 

Jager, Ronald, and Grace Jager. 1983. New 
Hampshire: An Illustrated History of 
the Granite 5fafe. Woodland Hills, 
California: Windsor Publications. 

James L. Garvin has been state architectural 
historian at the New Hampshire Division of 
Historical Resources since 1987. He worked as 
a curator at the New Hampshire Historical 
Society in Concord, and was one of the first 
employees when the Strawbery Banke 
Museum in Portsmouth opened in the early 
1960s. He has authored several exhibition cat- 
alogs ami a )mmber of articles on architecture 
and the decorative arts. He holds a degree in 
architectural engineering from the Wentworth 
Institute of Technology in Boston. 



19 



Mew Hampshire's Cultural Landscape 



tury, the ice of New Hampshire's pure 
lakes was cut into thick cakes and sent by 
rail or ship to cool the food and drink of 
Boston, New York, Savannah, and even 
India and South Africa. 

Scandinavian immigrants of the late 
19th century discovered the greatest 
economic value of New Hampshire's 
winters. Norwegians, Swedes, and Finns 
introduced skiing into a land that had 
known only Indian snowshoes, trans- 
forming New Hampshire's snow-covered 
mountain slopes into one of the first 
winter resort areas of the United States. 

But more than any of nature's other 
gifts, New Hampshire came to value its 
water Beginning in the 1630s with the 
construction of some of the first water- 
powered sawmills in North America, New 
Hampshire people learned how to har- 
ness the power of lakes and streams. By 
the 1820s, New Hampshire millwrights 
and engineers had begun to dam and 
control even the largest rivers. Immense 
water wheels and systems of pulleys and 
belts were constructed to power spindles 
and looms. Brick mills were built that 
surpassed any structures ever seen in 
North America. 

New Hampshire's industrial develop- 
ment made the state an internationally 
recognized center of textile production. 
The Amoskeag mills of IVlanchester grew 
to become the world's largest single tex- 
tile manufacturing complex. By 1870, 
New Hampshire had become one of the 
nation's most heavily industrialized 
states in proportion to its population. It 
remains so. Industry's ever-increasing 
demand for labor brought wave after 
wave of immigrants in the 19th and early 
20th centuries, enriching and diversify- 
ing New Hampshire's population. Mas- 
tery of the many skills needed to manu- 
facture cloth earned New Hampshire a 
high reputation in engineering, in the 
production of foundry products, in the 
machine tool industry, and in power 
generation and transmission. 
But the rise of industry was counter- 

18 



balanced by the decline of farming. Tired 
of fighting stony soil and short growing 
seasons, the children of New Hampshire's 
farms moved west by the thousands after 
the Civil War, or turned to nearby cities 
and mills. By the late 1800s, New Hamp- 
shire witnessed the abandonment of 
farms on a frightening scale. 
Turning a crisis into an opportunity, 



ment. The tourist boom that was launched 
in the 1890s has grown to represent New 
Hampshire's second-largest industry 

New Hampshire townships, the basic 
units of government in New Hampshire, 
are filled with dispersed farmsteads and 
homes. Nearly every township has 
somewhere within it a town hall, a place 
where the inhabitants gather one or more 



gious foment in the early 1800s, with 
several sects being founded here, includ- 
ing the Free-Will Baptists and the 
Seventh-Day Adventists. But since colo- 
nial days, each New Hampshire town had 
also had an established church, support- 
ed by taxation. This practice ended with 
passage of the "Toleration Act" in 1819. 
Shortly thereafter, church buildings of 



state to authorize its towns to raise money 
by taxation to support such libraries. In 
1891, it became the first state to provide 
state assistance to any town choosing to 
create a public library In 1895, it required 
every town to establish a library unless 
the electorate voted each year not to do so. 
Away from the city and the village, the 
land in New Hampshire, like the soil of 





■ 




■ 'i*^^^^ 



Above: The double-arched Carr Bridge in Hillsborough, New Hanip.liut, ij a 
remarkable example of dry masonry stone work. A double-arched bridge 
allows for the necessary volume of water to flow through and still keeps the 
height of the bridge consistent with the roadbed. The granite was probably 
cut from deposits right by the river. Photo by Lynn Martin 

Right: Floating in a pond, logs dusted with a November snow wait to be 
pulled into Garland Mills, one of the few water-powered sawmills remaining 
in New Hampshire. Built in 1856, it is located north of the White Mountains 

in Lancaster. Photo by Lynn Martin 




state government allied itself with hun- 
dreds of farmers, boarding house propri- 
etors, and hotel operators to make New 
Hampshire a tourist destination. Capital- 
izing on the state's beautiful scenery and 
healthful climate, promoters conveyed an 
image of New Hampshire as a place of 
wholesome rest and recreation. "Old 
Home Week," introduced in 1899, enticed 
those who had moved elsewhere to return 
to New Hampshire, perhaps for just one 
week. Yet the memory of that single week 
moved many a visitor to buy an aban- 
doned tarm or build a lakeside "camp" as 
a place of yearly summertime refresh- 



times each year to express "the will of the 
town" in the purest form of democracy 
known in North America. But the village 
is the characteristic element in any town- 
ship. The village may reflect 18th-century 
origins, perhaps with a common, a 
church, and a cluster of private dwellings 
and former stores or taverns. It may be 
the creation of the railroad, perhaps with 
brick business blocks, a depot, and a 
freight house. It may be a place of manu- 
facture, with a great brick mill set next to 
a stream and a cluster of boarding houses 
and private homes for niQl workers. 
New Hampshire was a place of reli- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 199'. 



the first European ships land on the New 
Hampshire coast in the 1620s. 

Constant change is written in New 
Hampshire's cultural landscape. But one 
image has persisted for many genera- 
tions. Outsiders and inhabitants alike 
often regard New Hampshire as an 
almost mythical place of natural beauty 
and rectitude, a place where hard work, 
intelligence, and character will be 
rewarded with happiness. It is no acci- 
dent that Thoreau, imagining one place 
in New England that was still filled with 
possibility, pointed to "a New Hamp- 
shire, everlasting and unfallen." 

Suggested Reading 

Gilmore, Robert C. 1981. New Hampshire 
Literature: A Sampler of Writings. 
Hanover, N.H.: University Press of 
New England. 
Hall, Donald. 1987. Seasons at Eagle 

Pond. New York: Ticknor and Fields. 
Heffernan, Nancy C.,and Ann Page Stecker. 
1986. New Hampshire: Crosscurrents in 
Its Development. Grantham, N.H.: 
Tompson & Rutter, Inc. 
Jager, Ronald, and Grace Jager. 1983. New 
Hampshire: An Illustrated History of 
the Granite Sfflte. Woodland Hills, 
California: Windsor Publications. 



many sects, buih by congregations that 
had been freed from support of the old 
established church, began to replace 
colonial meeting houses. It is thus no 
accident that New Hampshire villages are 
filled with church buildings that date 
from the 1820s, the 1830s, and later. 

The most impressive building in many 
New Hampshire villages is the free public 
library New Hampshire claimed the first 
public libraries in the United States with 
the establishment of a free public library 
in Dublin in 1822 and a fully tax-support- 
ed public library in Peterborough in 1833. 
In 1849, New Hampshire became the first 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



an ancient civilization, holds evidence of 
more than one stratum of human occu- 
pancy. The forest floor is pockmarked 
with half-filled cellar holes from the age 
of settlement. Roadways are flanked by 
stone walls that restrained long-departed 
herds, stone-lined wells, the foundations 
of barns, and broken milldams whose 
streams have reverted to a wild state. 
This, too, is part of the cultural land- 
scape of New Hampshire, revealing itself 
only to the sensitive and experienced eye. 
In certain locations, that eye may also 
discern traces of the villages and fishing 
sites of a still earlier people who watched 



James L. Garvin has been state architectural 
historian at the New Hampshire Division of 
Historical Resources since 1987. He worked as 
a curator at the New Hampshire Historical 
Society in Concord, and was one of the first 
employees when the Strawbcry Banke 
Museum in Portsmouth opened in the early 
1 960s. He has authored several exhibition cat- 
alogs and a number of articles on architecture 
and the decorative arts. He holds a degree in 
architectural engineering from the Wentworth 
Institute of Technology in Boston. 



19 



Fiddle Music, Dance, and 
Community in New Hampsiiire 



In New Hampshire, the music of the 
fiddle often brings people together, 
creating moments of deep pleasure 
and exuberant movement, lifting the 
ordinary into the realm of art, encourag- 
ing notions of community. Of course, 
music can do this anywhere. But New 
Hampshire's fiddle music tells us some- 
thing about how at least some citizens 
experience that sense of community 
This, in turn, tells us something about 
the state of community in the state of 
New Hampshire. 

Last summer, I was a judge at a 
fiddlers' competition in the capital. 
Concord. We heard Franco- American 
music and the straightforward North- 
eastern style some people describe as 
Yankee. Irish and Scottish tunes and 
styles, and music associated with the 
flourishing contra dance scene found 
their way into the mix. There were 
examples of a generalized Northern 
contest style, highly technical and pre- 
cise. Someone from Massachusetts 
played a high-tech style that transcend- 
ed New England playing. In short, no 
one way of playing stood out as 
emblematic of a distinctive New 
Hampshire tradition. The fiddling in 
New Hampshire — and there's lots of it 
— is not one music. 

We need to turn to local settings to 
learn more about the state's various 
musical traditions. On Wednesday 
nights, musicians gather at a small 
building behind Marcel Robidas's house 
in Dover that was built for music-mak- 
ing. A dozen or more men and women 

20 




Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



On any given Saturday night; you 
can find a New Hampshire town 
hall or grange building hosting a 
contra dance. 




Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



with fiddles, guitars, and other instru- 
ments are there. Someone pounds out 
the rhythm on the piano, and the music 
cascades from a number of streams of 
tradition: French-Canadian joining a 
general Northeast and Maritime reper- 
toire. Marcel was born in Orange, 
Vermont, to a family of Franco- 
American heritage, but his music has no 
single source, no single label. Marcel 
once mentioned to me that he never 
thought of himself as a French fiddler 
until people started "coming around" to 
interview him about his music. So, 
although a night playing music at 
Marcel's might have a French accent, it is 
actually a merging of many musics. The 
people who come feel bound by the 
music. Then they go home to different 
towns. For musicians in New Hamp- 
shire, community and place of residence 
are not necessarily the same thing. 

In the North Country of New Hamp- 
shire is Berlin, an old industrial town 
and home to Larry and Henry 
Riendeau. The majority of New 
Hampshire's Franco-American popula- 
tion comes from Quebec, but the 
Riendeaus are Acadian in ancestry, from 
the Canadian Maritimes. The Riendeau 
music is deeply anchored in family tra- 
dition. At the same time, it helped — 
thanks to a late- 1960s LP that featured 
Larry and Henry with their father, Louis 
— to establish a canon of Franco- 
American tlddle music. Like many cre- 
ative musicians, they have learned from 
whoever interested them. Their current 
repertoire includes tunes from Gerry 
Robichaud, the excellent New Brunswick 
fiddler who lives in Massachusetts; 
Canadian Ivan Hicks, a leading "Down 
East" fiddler; and Winston Fitzgerald, 
who was an influential Cape Breton 
Scottish tiddler. The Riendeaus have 
long played their music in social clubs, 
kitchen breakdowns, hunting camps, 
and other local settings. Their music is 
based in the community of Berlin, but it 
connects them to other musicians and 

21 



Fiddle Music, 
Community in New 



Dance, and 
Hampshire 

Burt Feintuch 



On any given Saturday night, you 
can find a New Hampstiire town 
hall or grange building hosting a 
contra dance. 



In New Hampshire, the music of the 
fiddle often brings people together, 
creating moments of deep pleasure 
and exuberant movement, lifting the 
ordinary into the realm of art, encourag- 
ing notions of community. Of course, 
music can do this anywhere. But New 
Hampshire's fiddle music tells us some- 
thing about how at least some citizens 
experience that sense of community. 
This, in turn, tells us something about 
the state of community in the state of 
New Hampshire. 

Last summer, I was a judge at a 
fiddlers' competition in the capital, 
Concord. We heard Franco-American 
music and the straightforward North- 
eastern style some people describe as 
Yankee. Irish and Scottish tunes and 
styles, and music associated with the 
flourishing contra dance scene found 
their way into the mix. There were 
examples of a generalized Northern 
contest style, highly technical and pre- 
cise. Someone from Massachusetts 
played a high-tech style that transcend- 
ed New England playing. In short, no 
one way of playing stood out as 
emblematic of a distinctive New 
Hampshire tradition. The fiddling in 
New Hampshire — and there's lots of it 
— is not one music. 

We need to turn to local settings to 
learn more about the state's various 
musical traditions. On Wednesday 
nights, musicians gather at a small 
building behind Marcel Robidas's house 
in Dover that was built for music-mak- 
ing. A dozen or more men and women 

20 




Smithsonian Folklife Festival 199' 



Smithsonian Folklifb Festival 1999 



with fiddles, guitars, and other instru- 
ments are there. Someone pounds out 
the rhythm on the piano, and the music 
cascades from a number of streams of 
tradition: French-Canadian joining a 
general Northeast and Maritime reper- 
toire. Marcel was born in Orange, 
Vermont, to a family of Franco- 
American heritage, but his music has no 
single source, no single label. Marcel 
once mentioned to me that he never 
thought of himself as a French fiddler 
until people started "coming around" to 
interview him about his music. So, 
although a night playing music at 
Marcel's might have a French accent, it is 
actually a merging of many musics. The 
people who come feel bound by the 
music. Then they go home to different 
towns. For musicians in New Hamp- 
shire, community and place of residence 
are not necessarily the same thing. 

In the North Country of New Hamp- 
shire is Berlin, an old industrial town 
and home to Larry and Henry 
Riendeau. The majority of New 
Hampshire's Franco-American popula- 
tion comes from Quebec, but the 
Riendeaus are Acadian in ancestry, from 
the Canadian Maritimes. The Riendeau 
music is deeply anchored in family tra- 
dition. At the same time, it helped — 
thanks to a late- 1960s LP that featured 
Larry and Henry with their father, Louis 
— to establish a canon of Franco- 
American fiddle music. Like many cre- 
ative musicians, they have learned from 
whoever interested them. Their current 
repertoire includes tunes from Gerry 
Robichaud, the excellent New Brunswick 
fiddler who lives in Massachusetts; 
Canadian Ivan Hicks, a leading "Down 
East" fiddler; and Winston Fitzgerald, 
who was an influential Cape Breton 
Scottish fiddler. The Riendeaus have 
long played their music in social clubs, 
kitchen breakdowns, hunting camps, 
and other local settings. Their music is 
based in the community of Berlin, but it 
connects them to other musicians and 

21 



other places, reaching well beyond 
New Hampshire. 

On any given Saturday night, you can 
find a New Hampshire town hall or 
grange building hosting a contra dance. 
Callers chant instructions to lines of 
couples who progress up and down, 
swinging, balancing, promenading, their 
bodies propelled by the music. A fiddle 



shires best-known contra dance fiddlers 
and a symbol of New Hampshire for 
dance enthusiasts around the country, is 
originally from upstate New York, and 
became inspired to play for dances while 
attending a dance and music camp in 
Massachusetts. 

Other fiddle music of many styles can 
be heard all over New Hampshire. 



Members of the Maple 

Sugar Band rehearse in 

Marcel Robidas's barn 

in Dover, New 

Hampshire. 

Photo by ]ill Lmzee 



and a piano are nearly always at the 
center of the music, joined perhaps by 
flute, accordion, guitar, bass, or other 
instruments. The full story of contra 
dance remains to be written, but it is 
clearly a transatlantic story, a transfor- 
mation of older dance forms, with 
diverse local inspirations. Two charis- 
matic New Hampshire figures, first 
Ralph Page and later Dudley Laufman, 
figure prominently in 20th-century 
revivals of the music. 

Contra dance has become a national 
form, but New Hampshire receives much 
credit as the center. Peterborough, 
Nelson, and Dover are popular contra 
dance venues. The dancers, though, come 
from different geographical and social 
spaces. Some would have once happily 
described themselves as members of the 
counterculture. Many are professionals, 
and many are not originally from New 
Hampshire. It is the gathering, the music, 
and the dancing, that create a spirit of 
community. Even Rodney Miller, a virtu- 
oso who has become one of New Hamp- 

22 




Contests at Weare and Stark, like the 
Concord contest, attract fiddlers from 
the region. The New Hampshire Strath- 
spey and Reel Society meets monthly, 
playing a Scottish repertoire, under the 
direction of a Massachusetts musician. 
Irish sessions abound in bars, and mas- 
ter fiddler Roger Burridge, born in 
England but apprenticed in Ireland, has 
a growing presence. Bluegrass groups 
featuring accomplished fiddlers are scat- 
tered across the landscape. Nashua's 
Wilson Langlois plays old Quebecois 
tunes as well as swing-influenced music 
from his days with a dance combo. 
Harvey Tolman, from Marlborough, a 
descendant of a musical dynasty in the 
southwestern part of New Hampshire, 
plays mostly Cape Breton music, having 
been inspired by a festival in Massachu- 
setts years ago. Contra dance fiddlers 
often break into Scottish or Irish tunes, 
thanks to the international growth of 
interest in musics from those places. 

It's tempting, in a state where histori- 
cal consciousness runs high, to think of 



fiddle music as old. But today's fiddle 
music in New Hampshire is as much a 
product of various sorts of mobility as it 
is about continuity, reflecting an era in 
which ways of thinking about locality, 
identities, and culture are challenged by 
new ways that people, information, and 
capital move. Some of the music's char- 
acter has to do with regional history, 
especially population movement from 
Canada to northern New England. Much 
of it is what folklorists and ethnomusi- < 
cologists describe as revival music, 
music played outside its original cultural 
community. At a time when New Hamp- 
shire has seen a considerable influx of 
people from elsewhere, and when statis- 
tics tell of the state's comparative afflu- ^ 
ence, fiddle music's popularity reflects a 
desire to create the kinds of communi- 
ties we imagine were once here. Indeed, 
it would be very hard to say that New 
Hampshire fiddle music is significantly 
different from Vermont's, or Maine's. It's 
here, though, in its varied forms and set- 
tings, and it brings people together. That ( 
makes us much better off than we would 
be without it. 

Suggested Listening 

Choose Your Partners, Contra Dance & 
Square Dance Music of New 
Hampshire. 1999. Smithsonian 
Folkways Recordings SFW 40126. 

Mademoiselle, voulez-vous danser? 
Franco- American Music from the 
New England Borderland. 1999. 
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 
SFW 401 16. 

Burt Feintuch is a professor of folklore and 
English at the University of New Hampshire, 
where he directs the Center for the Human- 
ities. A former editor of the lournal of 
American Folklore, he is developing, with 
David Walters, the Encyclopedia of New 
England Culture. He plays the fiddle for 
dancing with the Lamprey River Band, most- 
ly in New Hampshire's Seacoast region. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Making Do: 
The Aesthetics of Frugality 



Rebecca L. Lawrence 



Use it up 
Wear it out 
Malce it do 
Or do wittiout 

Every girl who grows up in north- 
ern New England hears "make it 
do, or do without" so often that it 
creates a permanent wrinkle in her 
brain. This phrase, expressing the 
essence of Yankee frugality, also captures 
the aesthetic of the region's domestic 
crafts: braided rugs, quilts, stenciling, 
dried flowers and herbs for winter deco- 
rations or sachets, and preserves made 
from summer harvests. 

"Yankees" of my generation (born in 
the 1940s) who were fortunate enough 
to grow up in households that allowed 
frequent contact with their grandmoth- 
ers had direct experience with the prac- 
tice of these household traditions. I 
clearly recall my grandmother ripping 
old flannel or wool shirts into strips that 
she twisted into flat braids, then sewed 
into ovals or circles to cover the cold, 
winter floors. Many of my great-aunts 
knitted, crocheted, embroidered, or 
quihed. Each one became known in the 
family for the skill in which she excelled. 

My grandmother was the best cook 
among her sisters, and that was the tra- 
dition she shared with me: breads, bis- 
cuits, shortcakes, pies, puddings, chow- 
ders, and stews. As we worked together 
scooping out butter (in walnut-sized 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



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balls) or shaping scraps of pie dough 
into little jam turnovers and cinnamon- 
sugar spirals, she mingled her "receipts," 
which were never written down, with 
family history and recipes to live by My 
favorite homily of hers is: 
Be kind to all dumb animals 
and give small birds a crumb. 
Be kind to human beings, too, 
they're sometimes pretty dumb. 
Today, we buy pie crusts in ready-made 
circles. There are no scraps to roll into 
tiny treats, wrapped in words of wisdom. 

I thought about these things when I 
looked into the craft of stenciling, which 
my mother practiced as I was growing 
up. Because this craft, along with other 
New England domestic crafts, has been 
so commercialized and oversold for 
"country" decorating schemes, it's easy 
to forget its roots and authenticity as it 
was practiced in rural homes, particu- 
larly in the "backwoods" areas of Maine 
(where 1 grew up) and New Hampshire. 
I asked my mother how she learned the 
technique and her thoughts on whether 
it was a true tradition or a revival. In her 
case, she learned how to stencil in the 
1930s from someone who was recog- 
nized in the community as knowing a 
lot about it. Why in the 1930s? Because it 



Pineapple stencil by Helen Learned of Rumney, 
New Hampshire. 

was Great Depression times, and every- 
one was looking for different ways of 
earning a few extra dollars. Practicing 
crafts at home was one of those ways. 
My mother and a few of her friends 
asked the woman to teach them stencil- 
ing and decorative painting, which the 
woman did informally No money 
changed hands; "It was about friendship, 
and she was a nice lady." 

Stenciling techniques, which became 
less important for wall and floor decora- 
tions when the Industrial Revolution 
brought down the cost of wallpaper and 
patterned rugs, were kept alive, on a 
much less grand scale, in other trades 
such as carriage, furniture, and utensil 
decoration in the period between 1840 
and 1930. My mother told me that the 
woman she learned from taught "old 
techniques" and that some of her sten- 
cils were made from the shellacked 
brown paper used by Moses Eaton and 
other itinerant stencil painters from the 
1780s to the 1840s. My mother cut her 
own stencils from architect's linen used 
for blueprints of the day During this 
time an acquaintance of hers found a 

23 



box of original Eaton stencils in her 
attic. Her friend shared Eaton's designs 
with the group. 

Moses Eaton moved to Hancock, New 
Hampshire, from Needham, Massachu- 
setts, in the 1780s. His son, Moses Jr., 
apprenticed with him, and they both 
practiced their craft in northern New 
England. The Eaton descendants, who 
still live in New Hampshire, do not carry 
on the family stenciling tradition. These 
days, stenciling-made-easy kits are a 
hobby-shop staple: the craft as occupa- 
tion has outlived its purpose and place 
in the community. Even so, there are 
many examples of the Batons' original 
work in New Hampshire, and stenciled 
walls have become a universally recog- 
nized symbol of a "New England" 
aesthetic. 

Other New England crafts continue 



with more vitality, particularly those that 
have been passed down as family tradi- 
tions. The idea of turning food scraps 
into a savory stew or red flannel hash 
parallels the aesthetic of turning scraps 
of cloth into a colorful quilt, or braiding 
worn-out family clothing into a rug. It 
extends to the notion of finding uses for 
things that others would discard. Fading 
flowers, properly dried, turn into wreaths 
of summer sun to warm homes through 
the winter's dark days. Brown ash wood 
to a carpenter has little use, but to a bas- 
ket maker like Newt Washburn of 
Bethlehem, New Hampshire, working in 
his Sweetser family tradition, split brown 
ash wood turns into baskets for eggs, 
laundry, berry-picking, and a host of 
other uses. An old chair with a sagging, 
ripped bottom doesn't get thrown away. 
Chair reseaters like Peter Blanchard of 



Concord, who keeps up his family busi- 
ness, weave the seat again and again. 
The concept all these crafts have in com- 
mon is the transformation of trash into 
treasure. 

In New Hampshire, self-sufficient cot- 
tage industries like these were the impe- 
tus for the League of New Hampshire 
Craftsmen to form during the Great 
Depression. As early as the mid- 1920s, a 
few enlightened folks (the Coolidges in 
Center Sandwich and A. Cooper 
Ballantine in Wolfeboro) saw the earning 
potential of isolated farming people with 
traditional craft skills banding together 
to expand the market for what they 
made. They also saw the importance of 
the master-apprentice system as a way of 
passing these skills on. They convinced 
Governor John Winant to provide seed 
money from the state to create a 




Making Do: The Aesthetics of Frugality 



Commission on Arts and Crafts in 1931. 
The commission's report to the governor 
advocated supporting the highest aes- 
thetic standard for New Hampshire 
crafts; providing gainful work through 
home industries, native crafts, and arts; 
and offering instruction in arts and 
crafts. 

In 1932, the commission became the 
League of New Hampshire Craftsmen, 
in the early days, the league was a total- 
ly grassroots organization, encouraging 
the use of local materials like river clay, 
forming local craft guilds such as the 
Saffron and Indigo Society, and seeking 
out old-timers to instruct others in their 
craft traditions. In 1934 the league orga- 
nized the first craft fair in the nation at 
Crawford Notch in the White Moun- 
tains. Along with a sales area, the fair 
had demonstrations of pottery, weaving. 



vegetable-dyeing, basket-making, wood- 
carving, and ironworking. Also featured 
were the singing of old tunes and coun- 
try dancing. 

The league fair, now held each August 
at Mount Sunapee State Park, has grown 
to hundreds of booths. Nearly 50,000 
people come to see exhibits, demonstra- 
tions, and performances as well as to 
shop. The inventory has expanded to 
include less functional, more contempo- 
rary crafts; but there is still a core selec- 
tion of traditional New England crafts 
— mustards, jellies, ironwork, braided 
and hooked rugs, clay bowls, quilts, 
dried flower wreaths, woodcarvings, and 
more. These crafts tell the story of the 
league's origins and help carry on family 
traditions in New Hampshire's craft 
occupations. 

A feature of recent league fairs is a 



"next generation" booth, where the chil- 
dren of league members sell their own 
crafts, often made from the scraps left 
over from their parents' work. "Making 
do" is one aesthetic that remains a thor- 
oughly New Hampshire tradition. 

Suggested Reading 

Steele, Betty. 1982. The League of New 
Hampshire Craftsmen's First Fifty 
Years. Concord, N.H. 

Rebecca Lawrence is the director of the New 
Hampshire State Council on the Arts in 
Concord. She has lived in New Hampshire 
since 1987, but lier Yankee roots date back to 
the mid- 1600s, when her ancestors were pio- 
neers on Sabattus Mountain, Maine. 




Above: League of New Hampshire Craftsmen display at the 1939 Durham Fair. 

Photo courtesy League of New Hantpslure Craftunen 



Left: Gardeners Sandi and Wayne Yacek of Milan have created a home business out of the traditional 
skills of making ornamental wreaths, swags, and other arrangements from dried materials. Combined 
in a variety of shades and textures, they bring color and fragrance to the house during the long winter 
months in New Hampshire. Photo by Lynn Martin 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



25 



f • 



Le Patrimoine franco-amencain 

Franco-American Heritage 
in New Hampshire 

A Photo Essay by Gary Samson 



Right: When social documentary photographer Lewis W. Hine 
made this photograph of Amoskeag employees exiting the mill yard in 1909, 
40 percent of the company's work force of approximately 1 5,000 was Franco- 
American. Hine had come to Manchester to record child labor practices as 
part of his work for the National Child Labor Committee. 





nTHWF^TTJ^'^ 




Besides textile and shoe manufacturing, Franco-Americans found work in other industries or established their own small businesses. Employees j 
of the Manchester Coal and Ice Company, which harvested ice from Massebesic Lake, pose for a photograph by Boulanger et Freres, about 1900. i 




Between 1830 and 1900, 
340,000 French Canadians 
abandoned the poor eco- 
nomic and political condi- 
tions that existed in their 
native province of Quebec for the 
promise of a better way of life and a 
chance to more fully realize their ambi- 
tions in the industrial centers of New 
England. As the new century began, 
Quebecois continued to relocate across 
the southern border, drawn away from 
small Canadian towns such as Waterloo, 
Magog, and Fulford by the attractions of 
prosperous American cities such as 
Manchester, New Hampshire, home of 
the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, 
then the world's largest producer of tex- 
tile products. 

The French Canadians came to be 
known as Franco-Americans. In mill 
towns, the Franco-American communi- 
ty was often called Le Petit Canada, or 
Little Canada, and at times entire popu- 
lations of rural Quebec villages were 
transferred almost completely intact to 
a particular mill-town neighborhood. 

Gary Samson is manager of Photographic 
Services at the University of New Hampshire. 
He has produced ten films reflecting the 
diverse history and cidture of the state of New 
Hampshire and has organized many exhibits 
on historic aspects of New Hampshire. Gary 
is one of the state's most respected photo- 
graphers and teaches photography at the New 
Hampsliire Institute of Art in Manchester. 




Left: Manchester photographer Ulric Bourgeois as 
he ventured forth with camera and tripod for a day 
of fieldwork, about 1913; photographer unknown. 
Bourgeois and his wife arrived in the city at the 
turn of the century after an apprenticeship at 
Ethier Studios, Waterloo, Quebec. His bilinguahsm 
coupled with his creative imagination and knowl- 
edge of the technical aspects of the medium 
enabled him to become one of the state's leading 
photographers. He retired in 1950 after 50 years of 
photographing Manchester's history and culture. 

Below: The first credit union in the United States, 
La Caisse Populaire Sainte-Marie, was established 
in Manchester on November 24, 1908, to serve the 
rapidly growing Franco- American population. 
The organization, initially operated from a private 
home, was moved to new headquarters in 1913. 
Photo by Launer Durt'ttc, circa I9i0 




Below: In Manchester, New Hampshire, the Merrimack River Hows ihriiuj;li the once great Amoskeag Manufacturing complex, reflecting a part of history, 
industrial progress, and social change. This 1903 panoramic view of the company captures the dramatic expanse of the largest textile mill yard in the world 
and the city it built, a unique example of 19th-century community planning. Photo © Alphomon H. Sanborn 



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Le Patrimoine franco-americain 

Franco-American Heritage 
in New Hampshire 

A Photo Essay by Gary Samson 



Right: When social documentary photographer Lewis W. Hine 
made this photograph of Amoskeag employees exiting the mill yard in 1909, 
40 percent of the company's work force of approximately 15,000 was Franco- 
American. Hine had come to Manchester to record child labor practices as 
part of his work for the National Child Labor Committee. 






etween 1850 and 1900, 
340,000 French Canadians 
abandoned the poor eco- 
nomic and pohtical condi- 
_ tions that existed in their 

native province of Quebec for the 
promise of a better way of life and a 
chance to more fully realize their ambi- 
tions in the industrial centers of New 
England. As the new century began, 
Quebecois continued to relocate across 
the southern border, drawn away from 
small Canadian towns such as Waterloo, 
Magog, and Fulford by the attractions of 
prosperous American cities such as 
Manchester, New Hampshire, home of 
the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, 
then the world's largest producer of tex- 
tile products. 

The French Canadians came to be 
known as Franco-Americans. In mill 
towns, the Franco-American communi- 
ty was often called Le Petit Canada, or 
Little Canada, and at times entire popu- 
lations of rural Quebec villages were 
transferred almost completely intact to 
a particular mill-town neighborhood. 




Left: Manchester photographer Ulric Bourgeois as 
he ventured forth with camera and tripod for a day 
of fieldwork, about 1913; photographer unknown. 
Bourgeois and his wife arrived in the city at the 
turn of the century after an apprenticeship at 
Ethier Studios, Waterloo, Quebec. His bilingualism 
coupled with his creative imagination and knowl- 
edge of the technical aspects of the medium 
enabled him to become one of the state's leading 
photographers. He retired in 1950 after 50 years of 
photographing Manchester's history and culture. 

Below. The first credit union in the United States, 
La Caisse Populaire Sainte-Marie, was established 
in Manchester on November 24, 1908, to serve the 
rapidly growing Franco- American population. 
The organization, initially operated from a private 
home, was moved to new headquarters in 1913. 
Photo by Laurier Durette, circa 1930 




Besides textile and shoe manufacturing, Franco-Americans found work in other industries or established their own small businesses. Employees 
of the Manchester Coal and Ice Company, which harvested ice from Massebesic Lake, pose for a photograph by Boulanger et Freres, about 1900. 



Gary Samson is manager of Photographic 
Services at the University of New Hampshire. 
He has produced ten films reflecting the 
diverse history and culture of the state oj New 
Hampshire and has organized many exhibits 
on historic aspects of New Hampshire. Gary 
is one of the state's most respected photo- 
graphers and teaches photography at the New 
Hampshire Institute of Art in Manchester. 



Below: In Manchester, New Hampshire, the Merrimack River flows through the once great Amoskeag Manufacturing complex, reflecting a par. of history 
industrial progress, and social change. This 1903 panoramic view of the company captures the dramatic expanse of the largest textile mdl yard tn the world 
and the city it buUt, a unique example of 19th-century community planning. Pholo © Alphomon H. Sanborn 



Right: Inspired by the earlier 
documentary work of Lewis W. Hine 
and Ulric Bourgeois, I began 
photographing the diverse Franco- 
American population of Manchester 
in 1980. Doris Houle Burke, expect- 
ing her first child, was photographed 
in her kitchen in 1982 as part of this 
extended portrait of the community. 
Photo by Gary Samson 



Above far right: For three-quarters of a century, 
the Durette family has been recording the people, 
customs, and events of Manchester's Franco- 
American community. Gerald Durette, son of 
Laurier Durette, is a third-generation photogra- 
pher carrying on the family tradition established 
by his grandfather, Francois Xavier Durette. 
Photo by Gary Samson, 1999 






Above: Parade float, Sauit-Jeaii Baplisic Day, Manchester, 1950. John the 
Baptist is the patron saint of French-speaking people in North America. 

Photo by Laurier Durette 



[/ffcL_K^^ 



=J*"' 



.^^ 



U 






28 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Le Patrimoine franco-americain I Vranco- American Heritage in New Hampshire 



Suggested Reading 

Brault, Gerard J. 1986. The French-Canadiati 
Heritage in New England. Hanover, N.H.: 
University Press of New England. 

Hareven, Tamara K., and Randolph Langenbach. 
1978. Amoskeag: Life and Work in an American 
Factory City. New York: Pantheon Books. 



Samson, Gary. 1989. The Merrimack Valley: A Visual 
History. Norfolk, Virginia: The Donning 
Company Publishers. 

. 1991."Ulric Bourgeois (1874-1963): Franco- 
American Photographer," Historical New 
Hampshire, volume 46, no. 3 (Fall). 

. 1996. A World Within a World: Manchester, 



the Mills and the Immigrant Experience. Dover, 
N.H.: Arcadia Press. 




Quebecois artist 
Ozias Leduc was 
commissioned in 
1906 to decorate the 
interior of the recent- 
ly completed Sainte- 
Marie Church, located 
in the heart of Little 
Canada, Manchester's 
French-Canadian 
neighborhood. 
The parish was estab- 
lished in 1880 to ease 
the overcrowding of 
the city's first French- 
language Catholic 
church, Saint 
Augustine's, 
founded in 1871. 
Photo by Laiiner 
Diirette, circa 1930 



Smithsonian Fm ki h h Festival 1999 



29 



Right: Inspired by the earlier 
documentary work of Lewis W. Hine 
and Ulric Bourgeois, I began 
photographing the diverse Franco- 
American population of Manchester 
in 1980. Doris Houle Burke, expect- 
ing her first child, was photographed 
in her kitchen in 1982 as part of this 
extended portrait of the community. 
Pholo by Gary Saimon 



Above far right: For three-quarters of a century, 
the Durette family has been recording the people, 
customs, and events of Manchester's Franco- 
American community. Gerald Durette, son of 
Laurier Durette, is a third-generation photogra- 
pher carrying on the family tradition established 
by his grandfather, Francois Xavier Durette. 
Pholo by Gary Samson, 1999 




ie Patrimoine franco-americain I ¥vanco- American Heritage in New Hampshire 



Suggested Reading 

Brault, Gerard J. 1986. The French-Canadian 
Heritage in New England. Hanover, N.H.: 
University Press of New England. 

Hareven, Tamara K., and Randolph Langenbach. 
1978. Amoskeag: Life and Work in an American 
Factory City. New York: Pantheon Books. 



Samson, Gary. 1989. The Merrimack Valley: A Visual 
History. Norfolk, Virginia: The Donning 
Company Publishers. 

. 1991. "Ulric Bourgeois (1874-1963): Franco- 
American Photographer," Historical New 
Hampshire, volume 46, no. 3 (Fall). 

. 1996. A World Within a World: Manchester, 



the Mills and the Immigrant Experience. Dover, 
N.H.: Arcadia Press. 




Above: Parade float, Saint-Jean Baptiste Day, Manchester, 1950. John the 
Baptist is the patron saint of French-speaking people in North America. 
Photo by Laurier Durette 




Qu^becois artist 
Ozias Leduc was 
commissioned in 
1906 to decorate the 
interior of the recent- 
ly completed Sainte- 
Marie Church, located 
in the heart of Little 
Canada, Manchester's 
French-Canadian 
neighborhood. 
The parish was estab- 
lished in 1880 to ease 
the overcrowding of 
the city's first French- 
language Catholic 
church. Saint 
Augustine's, 
founded in 1871. 
Photo by Laurier 
Durette, circa 1930 



28 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 19 '9 Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



29 



Granite and Grass^ 



Donald Hall 



Ragged Mountain Spirits, 
by Christopher Hill Morse, 1999. 



1 

On Ragged Mountain birches twist from rifts in granite. 
Great ledges show gray through sugarbush. Brown bears 
doze all winter under granite outcroppings or in cellarholes 
the first settlers walled with fieldstone. 
Granite markers recline in high abandoned graveyards. 

Although split by frost or dynamite, granite is unaltered; 
earthquakes tumble boulders across meadows; glaciers 
carry pebbles with them as they grind south 
and melt north, scooping lakes for the Penacook's trout. 
Stone bulks, reflects sunlight, bears snow, and persists. 

When highway-markers cut through a granite hill, scoring 
deep trench-sides with vertical drillings, they leave behind 
glittering sculptures, monuments to the granite state 
of nature, emblems of permanence 
that we worship in daily disease, and discover in stone. 




Quail scream in the fisher's jaw; then the fisher dotes. 

The coy-dog howls, raising puppies that breed more puppies 

to rip the throats of rickety deer in March. 

The moose's antlers extend, defending his wife for a season. 

Mother-and- father grass lifts in the forsaken meadow, 
grows tall under sun and rain, uncut, turns yellow, 
sheds seeds, and under assault of snow relents; in May 
green generates again. When the bear dies, bees construct 
honey from nectar of cinquefoil growing through rib bones. 



Ragged Mountain was granite before Adam divided. 

Grass lives because it dies. If weary of discord 

we gaze heavenward through the same eye that looks at us, 

vision makes light of contradiction: 

Granite is grass in the holy meadow of the soul's repose. 



But when we climb Ragged Mountain past cordwood stumpage, 
over rocks of a dry creekbed, in company of young hemlock, 
only granite remains unkind. Uprising in summer, in woods 
and high pastures, our sister the fern breathes, trembles, 
and alters, delicate fronds outspread and separate. 
The fox pausing for scent cuts holes in hoarfrost. 

30 



Donald Hall is the poet laureate of New Hampshire. His work reflects 
the natural and cultural landscape of the state. 

From The Happy Man by Donald Hall Copyright © 1981, 1982, 
1983, 1984, 1985, 1986 by Donald Hall. Reprinted by permission of 
Random House, Inc. 

Smithsonian Folkufe Festival 1999 



Politics and 
Community Values 



David H. Walters 




New Hampshire fourth graders 
read Nathaniel Hawthorne's 
short story, "The Great Stone 
Face" (1850), in which a young boy, 
Ernest, grows up in a town in the shadow 
of the Old Man of the Mountain. There is 
a prophecy that a child born nearby is 
"destined to become the greatest and 
noblest personage of his time, and [his] 
countenance, in manhood, should bear 
an exact resemblance to the Great Stone 
Face." After visits by a wealthy merchant, 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



a general, a silver-tongued politician, and 
a poet, townspeople recognize that 
Ernest himself resembles the Great Stone 
Face. He humbly stays home and serves 
his neighbors, confirming the fefferson- 
ian ideal that leadership arises from 
common folk. Today, local control and a 
suspicion of distant authority are the 
granite of New Hampshire political tradi- 
tions, which have persisted even as the 
population has absorbed waves of for- 
eigners from other nations and "Taxa- 



Town meeting in Chicester, presided over by 
moderator John E. Sargent (leaning on ballot box). 

Photo hy Geojf Forrester, courtesy Concord Monitor 

chusetts." Politics and community values 
blend in town meeting, protest move- 
ments, family service, and the presiden- 
tial primary. 

In New Hampshire, town meeting 
annually renews democracy Towns tra- 
ditionally meet on or about the second 
Tuesday of March. Roads are still pass- 

31 



able before mud season, and maple sug- 
aring is just underway. Ranging in size 
from 25 to 3,300, meetings begin with 
the Pledge of Allegiance, and, perhaps, 
"America, The Beautiful." There are 
many elected and appointed officials, 
such as moderator, selectman, road 
agent, and, in Durham, keeper of the 
swans. The moderator oversees debate 
on warrant articles listing each town 
budget item. In meeting, some women 
knit, some sit with kids in laps, some 
chat around the tables selling refresh- 
ments to support the volunteer tire 
department. Some men stand in the 
back or duck outside for a smoke. All 
watch each dollar like a hawk. The local 
property tax supports the town and 
schools, so citizens can calculate to the 
penny what their votes will cost. Many 
towns have a community meal that 
"helps ease tensions," according to 
Hilary Cleveland, New London's modera- 
tor. A good moderator provides the glue 
which holds a community together, with 
simple rules and competent, fair con- 
duct. Anyone who wants to speak may 
speak, and everyone speaks once before 
anyone speaks twice. These are the ethi- 
cal values which nourish democracy. 

Legendary repositories of traditional 
skill and wisdom, town moderators often 
have an extensive kinship network which 
blends family and community values. 
Steve Taylor, Plainfield moderator since 
1981, recalls visiting his first town meet- 
ing at age nine, when Palmer C. Reed 
presided: "He stood like a granite pillar 
on the stage, commanding the attention 
of all those before him." Everett Begore, 
who has served Hebron for 31 years, tries 
to "keep a tight ship, keep attention on 
the article, and hash it out." Many Hebron 
residents are retired on fixed incomes, so 
they know an increase in taxes might 
mean a neighbor has to sell or subdivide 
a farm. Funding for a new ambulance 
lost when one man noted he had just 
been transported in the old one, and it 
still looked all right to him. 

32 



Some issues become symbolic of a 
towns struggle to define its rural charac- 
ter. Towns around Mt. Kearsarge passed 
resolutions against the construction of a 
communications tower on the peak. In 
Plainfield, people debated for an hour 
over whether to turn off the five street- 
lights in the tiny hamlet of Cornish Flat. 
(They were left on when one resident 




during grassroots protest movements. 
Durham resisted Aristode Onassis's plan 
to build a massive oil refinery on Dur- 
ham Point. It became a battle over the 
balance of power between town and state 
when Governor Meldrim Thompson pro- 
posed legislation to overrule town meet- 
ings, and he asked all moderators in 
March 1974 to present a warrant in favor 



Barbara Anderson of 
Epsom poses in front 
of a wooden "Trojan 
Horse" and "Captive 
Nations Graveyard" 
built by George Ober of 1 
Ashland and erected in I 
the 1960s near an inn 
owned by the 
Andersons to protest 
U.S. involvement in the i 
United Nations. 
Photo by Ken Williams, 
courtesy Concord i 

Monitor ^ 



\ 



lamented that, without the lights, people 
might drive through at night and never 
know they'd been in Cornish Flat.) Town 
meeting oratory has its roots in daily 
recitations in primary schools, 4-H Clubs 
and Granges, and family and neighborly 
discussion. Newcomers learn quickly that 
persuasion outworks passion. 

Town meeting emerged in the 1960s 
and 1970s as a bulwark of home rule 



of an oil refinery Towns across the state 
voted this down, and on March 6, 1974, 
Durham defeated the proposed rezoning 
for the refinery 1,254 to 144. Calling 
home rule "the very bedrock of democ- 
racy in New Hampshire. . . from Coos to 
the Sea," Dudley Dudley, a descendant of 
Daniel Webster, led the successful fight 
against Thompson's legislation. 
New Hampshire's conservative politi- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Politics and Community Values 



cal culture often stands in protest 
against liberal ideas. William Loeb is 
legendary as the conservative editor of 
the Manchester Union Leader. Despite 
Loeb's national reputation as political 
king-maker and fierce anti-communist, 
he always identified with patriotic work- 
ing people. His front-page editorials 
forged the state's tough and colorful lan- 
guage of conservatism with a strong lib- 
ertarian accent. In Robert Frost's words, 
"Good fences make good neighbors." 

New Hampshire politics also is shaped 
by family culture. The Gregg, Bass, 
Sununu, and Dondero/Foley families 
have provided generations of leadership, 
and many politicians seem like family 
because the pohtical structure militates 
against the establishment of a profes- 
sional political class. There are 400 state 
representatives paid but $100 per annum, 
or one for each 2,500 residents, or four 
cents each per voter per year, which 
seems a fair bargain. Friends and family 
members, once elected, are "sent over to 
Concord" (a phrase which also can refer 
to sending someone to the state mental 
hospital there). The flip side of suspicion 
of distant authority is the placing of 
trust in generations of a family which 
embodies community values. 

The Gregg family arrived with the 
wave of Scotch-Irish settlers in 1719. 
Scotch-Irish independence, versatility, 
and entrepreneurial skills find political 
expression in the public service ot 
Governor Hugh Gregg and his son 
Senator Judd Gregg. Hugh Gregg has 
been mayor of Nashua, served in Korea, 
was elected in 1952 the youngest gover- 
nor in state history at age 34, and 
chaired presidential campaigns. The 
chronicler of the Republican Party and 
the presidential primary, he embodies a 
New Hampshire tradition whereby a 
community elder becomes a historian, a 
living archive of lore and wisdom, ludd 
Gregg has served as governor's councilor 
(1979-81), congressman (1981-89), 
governor (1989-93), and U.S. senator 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



( 1993-). Judd Gregg was inspired by the 
examples of his grandfather, who found- 
ed social service agencies, including the 
Crotched Mountain Rehabilitation 
Center, and his father. "When I was 
growing up it was understood that if you 
expected to take advantage of the won- 
derful and unique lifestyle that New 
Hampshire offers, you had an obligation 
to give back through participation and 
community service." For the Greggs, as 
for many families, public service is an 
"honorable and important undertaking." 

The Dondero/Foley family led Ports- 
mouth for decades. Mary Carey Dondero 
was the first woman to serve as a mayor 
in the state (1945-47), and her daughter 
Eileen Foley served many terms 
(1968-72, 1984-98). Mary Dondero 
earned the nickname "Sweetheart of the 
House" for her 1 1 terms as a state repre- 
sentative in Concord. She lost a race for 
State Senate by one vote, but Eileen 
Foley made up for that by winning the 
seat for seven terms. Eileen Foley 
describes herself as an "ordinary per- 
son" who every day wants to be "some- 
where where I can feel I can do some- 
thing good." Her three children continue 
the family tradition of public service; in 
the words of her daughter Mary, "The 
apple doesn't fall far from the tree." 

The first-in-the-nation presidential 
primary shows the world the community 
values of New Hampshire politics. Can- 
didates must visit kitchens, truck stops, a 
"Politics & Eggs" breakfast, and Robie's 
Country Store. People ask hard questions 
and expect honest answers as they look 
for moments which define presidential 
character. Ronald Reagan paid for a 
microphone, George Bush climbed into 
an 18- wheeler, and Bill Clinton promised 
to remember New Hampshire people 
"until the last dog dies," to pass the New 
Hampshire test. Such luminaries are 
joined by dozens of unknowns, such as 
Caroline Killeen,"The Hemp Lady," who 
pay $1,000 to place their names on the 
ballot. Killeen, age 72, advocates the legal- 



ization of marijuana. Traveling every- 
where by bicycle, her 1992 slogan was 
"America needs trees, not Bushes." 

On primary day, conversation at the 
polls turns to the weather and local 
taxes. Voters mark paper ballots in 
booths with red, white, and blue cur- 
tains. The first results come in right after 
midnight, from Dixville Notch, where 
voters gather at the Balsams Hotel to 
cast a dozen or so votes. Neil Tillotson, 
the 100-year-old moderator, has been 
the first person in America to vote in 
presidential elections since 1964. 
Twenty-four hours later, the candidates 
and the press have gone, and the next 
snowstorm covers up the campaign 
signs of winners and losers. 

Jeremy Belknap concluded his History 
of New Hampshire (1792) with a "vision 
of a happy society." A good society needs 
schools, farms, merchants, a clergyman, 
and a library, but there should be "no 
intriguing politician, horse jockey, gam- 
bler or sot; but all such characters treated 
with contempt." With such a warning, 
New Hampshire people for two centuries 
have judged politics and politicians by 
the values of their communities. 

Suggested Reading 

Duncan, Dayton. 1991. Grass Roots: One 
Year in the Life of the New Hampshire 
Presidential Primary. New York: 
Viking. 

Gregg, Hugh. 1990. The Candidates — See 
How They Run. Portsmouth, N.H.: 
P.E. Randall. 

The Library & Archives of New 
Hampshire's Political Tradition. 
1999. New Hampshire Political 
Troubadour. Nashua: Resources of 
New Hampshire, Inc. 



David H. Walters holds the James H. Hayes 
and Claire Short Hayes Chair in the 
Humanities at the University of New 
Hampshire. 



33 



Use and Reservation: Land 
Stewardship in New Hampshire 



Richard Ober 



In October my father and I cut fire- 
wood from our ancestral woodlot in 
southern New Hampshire. We load 
up chain saws and sandwiches in the 
morning and return in the evening 
speckled with sawdust and thinking 
about our roots. Although our place is 
mostly forested now, we still call it 
Jenkins Pasture. It's our half-joking nod 
to great-great-grandfather Charles 
Jenkins. 

Like Charles himself, the 100 acres 
he bought in the 1860s was cheap and 
not terribly productive. This was near 
the end of New Hampshire's agricultural 
heyday, and marginal pasture land was 
plentiful. For most of the previous 
century, farmers had been cutting and 
burning the primeval forest to make 
room for crops. They felled huge pine 
and oak and chestnut trees with axes, 
pulled stumps with their oxen, wrestled 
stones from the ground, furrowed their 
fields. It was grueling work considering 
the thin topsoil and short growing 
season. Mark Twain likely had a 19th- 
century New Hampshire hill farm in 
mind when he quipped, "In the south 
the people shape the land, but in the 
north the land shapes the people." 
Parsimony, independence, determina- 
tion. Most of the famous Yankee traits 
derive from our relationship with the 
land. 
When the railroad arrived in the 

Forest land in Wilmot, New Hampshire. 

Photo courtesy Society for the Protection 
of New Hampshire Forests 

34 




Smuhsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



In the south the people shape the 
land, but in the north the land shapes 
the people." 

— Mark Twain 




1 830s, some subsistence farmers made a 
few dollars shipping produce to market. 
But commercial agriculture was not to 
remain a dominant economic force. 
Victims of rich soil out west and better 
wages in the textile mills, farms failed by 
the thousands in the late 19th century. 
When the plowing stopped, trees sprout- 
ed. Wood industries followed. Subsis- 
tence was replaced by commerce as 
industrious entrepreneurs used the 
regenerating forests to manufacture a 
bewildering array of products, including 
crates, clapboards, pulp, buttons, musical 
instruments, dowels, boats, furniture, 
wood tlour, tanning solution, and, of 
course, lumber. Some woods were com- 
pletely cut over, and others were careful- 
ly managed. Acre by acre the forest 
reclaimed its place as the states most 
important raw commercial resource. 
Granite Staters adjusted accordingly. 

Then, at the turn of the 19th century, 
a very different land ethic appeared: 
preservation for leisures sake. Vacationers 
from New York and Boston found in New 
Hampshire's White Mountains a wilder- 
ness getaway where they could shake off 
urban woes and commune with nature. 
Problem was, the mountains also held 
New England's last virgin forests, and 
out-of-state timber companies were cut- 
ting them hard. The inevitable clash 
between use and preservation is neatly 
foreshadowed in two quotes about the 
White Mountains: "The good of going 
into the mountains," wrote Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, "is that life is reconsidered." 
Timber baron John E. Henry had a dif- 
ferent view: "I never see the tree yit that 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



didn't mean a damn sight more to me 
going under the saw than it did standing 
on a mountain." 

These conflicting attitudes were rec- 
onciled through the Weeks Act of 191 1, 
which led to the creation of the White 
Mountain National Forest and, ultimate- 
ly, 50 other eastern national forests. In 
addition to conserving 12 percent of 
New Hampshire's land base, the Weeks 
Act codified the doctrine of multiple use 
conservation, which seeks to balance 
resource use and protection. 

Throughout this century. New Hamp- 
shire has continued to struggle with this 
balance. We view real estate as wealth 
and tax it heavily, which discourages 
long-term stewardship. Yet we so value 
rural character that nearly half the land 
in the state is enrolled in a tax-abate- 
ment program that keeps it undevel- 
oped. Weak regulations have encouraged 
haphazard and inappropriate develop- 
ment in many places. Yet 22 percent of 
the state is permanently protected by 
land trusts and public agencies, by far 
the highest proportion of conservation 
land in the Northeast. We are one of the 
most fiscally conservative states in the 
nation. Yet conservation groups are high- 
ly respected, and the legislature has 
invested $50 million in new parks and 
forests in the past decade. 

Enigmatic? Certainly But that's New 
England, and in many ways the Granite 
State is the region's archetype. We have a 
rocky seacoast, dramatic mountains, 
quaint villages, covered bridges, maple 
sugar shacks, stone walls everywhere. 
We are also the fastest-growing state in 
the region. Embracing this prosperity 
while retaining our distinctive land- 
scapes and culture is not easy Indeed, it 
constandy tests our traditionally close 
relationship with the land and demands 
a steady dose of Yankee ingenuity. One 
illuminating fact: forest cover increased 
steadily from the 1860s through the 
1980s, but now it's declining again due 
to development. How will that affect our 

35 



Use and Reservation: Land 
Stewardship in New Hampsiiire 



Richard Ober 



'1n the south the people shape the 
land; but in the north the land shapes 
the people." 

— Mark Twain 



In October my father and I cut fire- 
wood from our ancestral woodlot in 
southern New Hampshire. We load 
up chain saws and sandwiches in the 
morning and return in the evening 
speckled with sawdust and thinking 
about our roots. Although our place is 
mostly forested now, we still call it 
Jenkins Pasture. It's our half-joking nod 
to great-great-grandfather Charles 
Jenkins. 

Like Charles himself, the 100 acres 
he bought in the 1860s was cheap and 
not terribly productive. This was near 
the end of New Hampshire's agricultural 
heyday, and marginal pasture land was 
plentiful. For most of the previous 
century, farmers had been cutting and 
burning the primeval forest to make 
room for crops. They felled huge pine 
and oak and chestnut trees with axes, 
pulled stumps with their oxen, wrestled 
stones from the ground, furrowed their 
fields. It was grueling work considering 
the thin topsoil and short growing 
season. Mark Twain likely had a 19th- 
century New Hampshire hill farm in 
mind when he quipped, "In the south 
the people shape the land, but in the 
north the land shapes the people." 
Parsimony, independence, determina- 
tion. Most of the famous Yankee traits 
derive from our relationship with the 
land. 
When the railroad arrived in the 

Forest land in Wilmot, New Hampshire. 

Photo courtesy Society for the Protection 
of New Hampshire Forests 
34 




1830s, some subsistence farmers made a 
few dollars shipping produce to market. 
But commercial agriculture was not to 
remain a dominant economic force. 
Victims of rich soil out west and better 
wages in the textile mills, farms failed by 
the thousands in the late 19th century 
When the plowing stopped, trees sprout- 
ed. Wood industries followed. Subsis- 
tence was replaced by commerce as 
industrious entrepreneurs used the 
regenerating forests to manufacture a 
bewildering array of products, including 
crates, clapboards, pulp, buttons, musical 
instruments, dowels, boats, furniture, 
wood flour, tanning solution, and, of 
course, lumber. Some woods were com- 
pletely cut over, and others were careful- 
ly managed. Acre by acre the forest 
reclaimed its place as the state's most 
important raw commercial resource. 
Granite Staters adjusted accordingly 

Then, at the turn of the 19th century, 
a very different land ethic appeared: 
preservation for leisure's sake. Vacationers 
from New York and Boston found in New 
Hampshire's White Mountains a wilder- 
ness getaway where they could shake off 
urban woes and commune with nature. 
Problem was, the mountains also held 
New England's last virgin forests, and 
out-of-state timber companies were cut- 
ting them hard. The inevitable clash 
between use and preservation is neatly 
foreshadowed in two quotes about the 
White Mountains: "The good of going 
into the mountains," wrote Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, "is that life is reconsidered." 
Timber baron John E. Henry had a dif- 
ferent view: "I never see the tree yit that 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 19' ■) 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



didn't mean a damn sight more to me 
going under the saw than it did standing 
on a mountain." 

These conflicting attitudes were rec- 
onciled through the Weeks Act of 191 1, 
which led to the creation of the White 
Mountain National Forest and, ultimate- 
ly, 50 other eastern national forests. In 
addition to conserving 12 percent of 
New Hampshire's land base, the Weeks 
Act codified the doctrine of multiple use 
conservation, which seeks to balance 
resource use and protection. 

Throughout this century. New Hamp- 
shire has continued to struggle with this 
balance. We view real estate as wealth 
and tax it heavily, which discourages 
long-term stewardship. Yet we so value 
rural character that nearly half the land 
in the state is enrolled in a tax-abate- 
ment program that keeps it undevel- 
oped. Weak regulations have encouraged 
haphazard and inappropriate develop- 
ment in many places. Yet 22 percent of 
the state is permanently protected by 
land trusts and public agencies, by far 
the highest proportion of conservation 
land in the Northeast. We are one of the 
most fiscally conservative states in the 
nation. Yet conservation groups are high- 
ly respected, and the legislature has 
invested $50 million in new parks and 
forests in the past decade. 

Enigmatic? Certainly But that's New 
England, and in many ways the Granite 
State is the region's archetype. We have a 
rocky seacoast, dramatic mountains, 
quaint villages, covered bridges, maple 
sugar shacks, stone walls everywhere. 
We are also the fastest-growing state in 
the region. Embracing this prosperity 
while retaining our distinctive land- 
scapes and culture is not easy. Indeed, it 
constantly tests our traditionally close 
relationship with the land and demands 
a steady dose of Yankee ingenuity. One 
illuminating fact: forest cover increased 
steadily from the 1860s through the 
1980s, but now it's declining again due 
to development. How will that affect our 

35 




changing relationship with the land? 

Jenkins Pasture is a good place to pon- 
der these things. The stone walls espe- 
cially get me thinking. Built to enclose 
fields but now a seamless part of the for- 
est, the stone wall is an icon of both con- 
tinuity and change. And isn't that the 
essence of land stewardship? To accom- 
modate growth in such a way that our 
human artifacts fit the landscape as 
smoothly as a stone wall, a steeple rising 
over a green hillside, a covered bridge 
spanning a swift and ever-changing 
river. 



Suggested Reading 

Cronon, William. 1983. Changes in the 
Land. New York: Hill and Wang. 

Dobbs, David, and Richard Ober. 1995. 
The Northern Forest. White River 
Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green. 

Irland, Lloyd. 1982. Wildlands and 

Woodlots: The Story of New England's 
Forest. Hanover, N.H.: University 
Press of New England. 

Nash, Roderick. 1982. Wilderness and the 
American Mind. 3rd ed. New Haven: 
Yale University Press. 

Ober, Richard, ed. 1992. At What Cost? 
Shaping the Land We Call New 
Hampshire: A Land Use History. 
Concord, N.H.: New Hampshire 
Historical Society. 



The Andorra Forest, 
showing the combina- 
tion of open land and 
forests typical to New 
Hampshire. 
Pholo courtesy Society 
for the Protection of 
New Hampshire Forests 



Richard Ober has written and lectured widely 
oil land use and forest conservation. He is co- 
author, with David Dobbs, of the award-win- 
ning book The Northern Forest (Chelsea 
Green, 1995). He has edited several books and 
has been published in Outside, Dartmouth 
Alumni Magazine, Northern Woodlands, 
Habitat, and other journals. Ober is senior 
director for outreach programs for the Society 
for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, 
the state's oldest and largest conservation 
organization. 



36 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Gateways to Romania 




UKRAINE 
• Satu Mare 

Maramure^ -^ ;** 

iar\sylvan/Q 

• Cluj-Napoca 

Transilvania 

• Alba lulla 

• Sibiu 

^1 (FOUNTAIN? 




Bucovina 

.Suceava i REPUBLIC OF 
MOLDOVA 




• Bacau 

Moldova 



UKRAINE 



iBra^ov 



YUGOSLAVIA 



\j4a\lach/Q 




Dobrogea 



• Ploiejti 



Muntenia 




• Bucharest 
(Bucure§ti) 



_y 



BULGARIA 




Constanta 

BLACK SEA 



This program is produced with the Romanian Cultural 
Fouttdation and organized with the cooperation of the Office of 
the President of Romania, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the 
Ministry ofCtdture, and the U.S. Embassy in Romania, and with 
support from the Government of Romania. Major sponsors are 
Coca-Cola and CONNEX. Contributors inchtde the Romanian 
Development Bank, Chase Manhattan Bank, and the Timken 
Foundation. Donors include Nestor Nestor & Kingston Petersen, 
Cold Chain Impex S.R.L, Zero International Inc., and General 
Electric. Major in-kind support is provided by Tarom Airlines, 
Bates Centrade Saatchi & Saatchi Romania, and Romtrans. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



37 



Gateways to Romanian 
Culture and History 

Charles King 




"We Romanians are the heirs of 
the eastern reaches of the Ro?nan 
Empire, whose memory we have 
preserved in our knguage and 
our name." 

— Nicolae lorga 
Romanian historian (1871-1 940) 

ajestic mountains, rolling 
plains, the Danube, and the 
Black Sea — all contribute to 
the geographical diversity of Romania, 
the gateway between the Balkans and 
Central Europe. The country is bordered 
by Hungary, Ukraine, the Republic of 
Moldova, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and the 
Black Sea. The central part of the coun- 
try is dominated by the great arc of the 
Carpathian Mountains, with their alpine 
peaks and thick beech, fir, and spruce 
forests. The Danube forms Romania's 
southwestern and southern border for 
much of its course, giving the country 
the longest Danube frontage in Europe. 
This great waterway ends its journey 
across Europe in Romania, emptying 
into the Black Sea and forming the 
Danube delta, one of the world's richest 
treasures of unique fauna and flora. Vast, 
fertile plains stretch from the Carpa- 
thians east toward the Black Sea coast. 
Fishermen and farmers, highlanders and 
lowlanders, forest dwellers and settlers 
of the plains have all contributed to the 
making of modern Romania. 

Romania consists of several distinct 
geographical regions, all of which have 
historically been more gateways than 
barriers to different cultures and peo- 

38 




pies. To the west lie the hills and flat- 
lands of Cri§ana and Banat, regions that 
open onto the immense Hungarian plain 
even farther west. To the north are the 
hills and mountains of Maramure? and 
Bucovina, regions that have long been 
considered the cradle of Romanian folk- 
lore and traditional art. In the center is 
Transylvania, with its distinctive multi- 
cultural heritage influenced by Roma- 
nians, Hungarians, and Germans. Across 
the Carpathians to the east lies Moldova, 
where Orthodox monks have long guard- 
ed their unique painted monasteries 
nestled amid lush foothills. To the south 
of the Carpathians are Oltenia and Mun- 
tenia, often grouped together under the 



name Wallachia, with their vast agricul- 
tural zones washed by the Danube. And 
situated between the Danube and the 
Black Sea is Dobrogea, where ancient 
fishing villages have given way to bust- 
ling tourist resorts. 

Romanians are often perceived as a 
small nation inhabiting a small and 
unknown land. But the image could not 
be farther from the reality. The Roma- 
nians are the largest cultural group in 
Southeast Europe and one of the largest 
in Europe as a whole. There are some 
25 million Romanian speakers living 
mainly in Romania but also in several 
neighboring countries. There are thus 
more Romanians in Europe than Nor- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



I Right: Icon represent- 
ing Adam and Eve, 
from Gheria, Banat. 

Photo courtesy Village 
Museum, Bucharest 



I Left: 
Sleeping Muse I, 
1909-1911, by 
Constantin Brancusi. 

Hirshhom Museum ami 
Sculpture Garden. Smith- 
sonian Institution, Gift of 
Joseph H. Hirshhom, 
1966. Photography by 
Ricardo Blanc 



wegians, Swedes, Finns, and Danes com- 
bined. The territory of Romania itself is 
only a little smaller than Italy. 

Today, Romania's population is just 
under 23 million. Major ethnic minori- 
ties include Hungarians (7 percent) and 
Roma or Gypsies (2 percent), as well as 
Germans, Ukrainians, Jews, Turks, Serbs, 
and other peoples. While Romanians 
form the majority populations in both 
Romania and the Republic of Moldova, 
there are also significant Romanian 
minorities in Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Yugoslavia. Diaspora commu- 
nities are scattered throughout the 
world, especially in the United States, 
Canada, and Western Europe. 

In their name and their language, 
Romanians preserve the legacy of the 
Roman Empire. Their language is of 
Latin origin, and speakers of Spanish or 
Italian will find something familiar in its 
sonorous rhythms. Indigenous peoples 
in the region of modern Romania were 
strongly influenced by Latin cuhure 
after the arrival of the Romans. Indeed, 
it is the conquest of the lands north of 
the Danube by the Emperor Trajan in 
the second century a.d. that is portrayed 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




on the famous Trajan's Column in Rome, 
the most complete ancient depiction of 
the clothing, appearance, and weaponry 
of the inhabitants of the region before 
the Roman conquest. The Roman legions 
transformed the region into a distinct 
province, Dacia, and managed to hold on 
to the frontier province until the coming 
of the barbarians in the third century a.d. 
In the following centuries, the local 
Latinized culture was influenced by 
Slavs, Hungarians, Turks, and other peo- 
ples, with each leaving a mark on the 
language, art, and history of modern 
Romanians. 

This ancient culture, however, did not 
find expression in a modern state until 
relatively late. Two large principalities — 
Moldova and Wallachia — emerged out 
of a congeries of local domains in the 
14th century, but these eventually fell 
under the control of the Ottoman Turks 
by the early years of the 16th century 
However, the Romanian lands were 
never fully incorporated into the empire, 
unlike areas south of the Danube, and 
for much of the Ottoman period the 
Romanians were ruled by their own 
princes in exchange for annual tribute 



paid to the sultan in Constantinople. 

The foundations of modern Romania 
were laid in 1859. In that year, noble 
assemblies in Wallachia and Moldova 
elected the same man as leader of the 
principalities, effectively uniting them 
under a single head. Within two decades, 
in 1878, the full independence of the 
new state — now called Romania — 
was recognized by the great powers. At 
the end of World War I, the country dou- 
bled its size and population, especially 
through the addition of Transylvania, 
Bessarabia, and Bucovina, areas that had 
previously been part of Russia and 
Austria-Hungary The turmoil of World 
War II reduced Romania's size, with 
much of the eastern part of the country 
incorporated into the Soviet Union. The 
march of the Soviet army to Bucharest in 
the closing days of the war ushered in 
the period of communism. Under the 
tyrannical leadership of Nicolae 
Ceau§escu, the communist experiment 
led to the environmental, economic, and 
cultural degradation of the Romanian 
land and people. However, an anti-com- 
munist revolution in 1989 swept away 
the Ceau^escu dictatorship and paved 
the way for the growth of democracy 
Since then, Romanians have worked to 
retake their place in Europe and to intro- 
duce their newly free land to investors 
and visitors from the West. 

Although the spiritual homeland of 
ethnic Romanians, Romania is also a 
land of great religious, linguistic, and 
cultural diversity. Orthodox monks. 
Catholic priests, Jewish rabbis, Protes- 
tant ministers, and Muslim imams may 
all be found there. Romania is the only 
country with a Latin cultural heritage 
without a dominant Roman Catholic tra- 
dition. Most Romanians, about 87 per- 
cent, adhere to the Romanian Orthodox 
faith. The peoples of the region accepted 
Christianity gradually in the third and 
fourth centuries a.d. After the split be- 
tween the Western and Eastern churches 
in the 1 1 th century, the territory of 

39 



modern Romania remained a part of the 
Byzantine tradition. The Romanian 
church received autonomous status in 
the mid- 19th century, and a Romanian 
Orthodox patriarchate was established 
in Bucharest. Like his counterparts in 
the Russian, Greek, and other Orthodox 
churches, the Romanian patriarch today 
serves as the spiritual leader of Ortho- 
dox Romanians. 

A small minority of Romanians, main- 
ly in Transylvania, are members of the 
Eastern Rite Catholic church. Also 
known as Greek Catholics, they recog- 
nize the authority of the pope but follow 
the liturgy of the Orthodox church. In 
1948, the communists forced the Greek 
Catholics to unite with the Orthodox, but 
after 1989 they were restored to their 
former independent status. 

Many of Romania's Hungarians and 
Germans are either Roman Catholics or 
members of Lutheran and Calvinist 
(Reformed) churches. Adventists, Bap- 
tists, and other Protestant traditions are 
also represented. Romania was histori- 
cally an important center of Jewish cul- 
ture, but the tragedy of the Holocaust 
and decades of emigration have reduced 
the Jewish population to a tiny minority. 
Other small religious groups, including 
Russian Orthodox sects and Muslim 
communities, practice their faith in the 
cultural patchwork of the Dobrogea 
region along the Black Sea. 

Modern Romanian cuhure is the 
product of centuries of interaction 
between local populations and succes- 
sive waves of immigration to the region. 
Until the mid- 19th century, Romanian 
was written in versions of the Cyrillic 
alphabet also used by Serbs, Bulgarians, 
and Russians. The vocabulary contains 
words of Turkic and Slavic origin. Music, 
dance, folk art, and religious traditions 
also share many commonalities with 
those of Hungarians, Slavs, Turks, and 
other Balkan peoples. Pre-Christian fes- 
tivals associated with the changing of 
the seasons were combined with saints' 

40 



days and other religious feasts after the 
coming of Christianity. Many of these 
traditions are preserved among the 
country's large rural population. 

Persons linked to Romania have made 
a major impact in many cultural spheres. 
Artists such as sculptor Constantin 
Brancu^i reinterpreted traditional 
Romanian folk themes through the lens 



ditions, the Romanians inhabit a land of 
diverse landscapes, where local customs, 
rituals, and ways of life have adapted to 
distinct physical environments: the 
woodlands of Transylvania and Mara- 
mure§, the plains of the west, the low- 
lands along the Danube river, and the 
urban cityscapes of Bucharest, Ia§i, and 
Cluj, ancient settlements that are today 




of modernism. Composers and writers 
such as George Enescu and Eugene 
lonesco likewise explored the bound- 
aries between custom and innovation. 
The philosopher of religions Mircea 
Eliade, the poet Paul Celan, the novelist 
Panait Istrati — as well as sports leg- 
ends such as Johnny Weismuller and 
Nadia Comaneci — have also hailed 
from Romania. Just as the country has 
been a gateway between East and West, 
so it has been a portal through which 
unique contributions to culture have 
reached the world. 

A people with a rich Latin heritage 
influenced by myriad other cultural tra- 



becoming nodal points in Romania's 
expanding array of private businesses, 
tourist outlets, and expatriate communi- 
ties. The folk culture of the peasant has 
long been seen as the embodiment of 
Romanian identity, but at the close of 
the millennium, Romanian culture is 
more than ever a dynamic combination 
of both tradition and modernity. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Gateways to Romanian Culture and History 



Suggested Readings and 
Films on Romanian and 
Moidovan Themes 

Academic Works 

Deletant, Dennis. 1995. Ceau^escu and the 
Seciiritate: Coercion and Dissent in 
Romania, 1965- 1989. Armonk,N.Y.: 
M.E. Sharpe. Britain's foremost 



1994. Rumania, 1866-1947. 








authority on Romania offers an 
examination of the communist-era 
secret police based on his research in 
the still-classified archives. 

Federal Research Division. 1995. Be/flrws 
atid Moldova: Country Studies. Wash- 
ington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 
The second half of this volume, by 
William Crowther of UNC-Greens- 
boro, presents a very good overview 
of Moidovan history and politics. 

Hitchins, Keith. 1996. The Romanians, 
1774-1866. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
A masterful synthesis by the dean of 
Romanian historians in the United 
States. 



Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Kligman,Gail. 1988. The Wedding of the 
Dead. Berkeley: University of Cali- 
fornia Press. A fascinating excursion 
into the folk rituals of northern 
Transylvania. 

Livezeanu, Irina. 1996. Cultural Politics in 
Greater Romania. Ithaca: Cornell 
University Press. A brilliant and 
readable analysis of the problems of 
state- and nation-building in 
Romania in the 1920s and 1930s. 

Memoirs, Journalism, and Literature 

Anton, Ted. 1996. Eros, Magic and the 
Death of Professor Culiami. Evanston: 
Northwestern University Press. A fas- 
cinating investigation into the 1991 
murder of a Romanian professor at 
the University of Chicago and possi- 
ble links with the Romanian far 
right. 

Funderburk, David B. 1997. Pinstripes 
and Reds. Washington, D.C.: Selous 
Foundation. A former U.S. ambas- 
sador's account of his battles with 
Ceau^escu, and with Washington. 

Malaparte, Kurzio. 1995. Kaputt. 

Evanston: Northwestern University 
Press. First-hand views of Romania 
during World War II, by the war cor- 
respondent for Corriere della Sera. 

Manea, Norman. 1993. Compulsory 
Happiness. Evanston: Northwestern 
University Press. Four short stories 
on the terrors of totalitarianism. 

Anything by Mihai Eminescu (the 

Romanian national poet). Ion Luca 
Caragiale (Romania's finest satirist), 
Paul Celan (Jewish-German poet 
born in Bucovina), Mircea Eliade 
(noted essayist, short-story writer, 
and professor of religion), or Emil 
Cioran (the dark and brooding voice 
of the "lost generation" of the 1920s). 
All have major works now available 
in English. 



Films 

Fortunes of War (BBC, 1992), starring 
Kenneth Branagh and Emma 
Thompson. An English professor and 
his wife travel through Romania and 
the Balkans in the 1930s, with the 
Nazis hot on their heels. The 
Bucharest Athenee Palace Hotel, 
where much of the action takes 
place, is now restored to its former 
grandeur. 

An Unforgettable Summer (Lucian Pin- 
tilie, 1991), starring Kristin Scott- 
Thomas. A film by one of Romania's 
most important contemporary direc- 
tors, which chronicles the fate of an 
army family sent to the Romanian- 
Bulgarian frontier in the 1920s. A 
searching portrayal of life on the 
turbulent border, as well as the 
moral and political complexity of 
Romania's interwar years. 

The Oak (Lucian Pintilie, 1992), starring 
Maia Morgenstern. A darkly funny 
story set in the waning years of the 
Ceau^escu regime, with gritty scenes 
shot in the environmental wasteland 
of Cop^a Mica. 

Web Resources 

The key source for Romanian and 
Moidovan links is the Web page of the 
Society for Romanian Studies, located at 
<http://vAvw.huntington.edu/srs/>. The 
page has excellent links to pages on his- 
tory, art, culture, politics, economics, and 
many other fields. 

Charles King holds the Ion Rafiu Chair of 
Romanian Studies at Georgetown University, 
where he teaches courses on contemporary 
Southeast Europe, nationalism, and compara- 
tive politics. His books include Nations 
Abroad: Diaspora Politics and International 
Relations in the Former Soviet Union (1998) 
and The Moldovans: Negotiable Nationalism 
on a European Frontier (in press). He is a fre- 
quent traveler to Romania and Moldova and 
speaks fluent Ronmnian. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



41 



modern Romania remained a part of th 
Byzantine tradition. The Romanian 
church received autonomous status in 
the mid-19th century, and a Romanian 
Orthodox patriarchate was established 
in Bucharest. Like his counterparts in 
the Russian, Greek, and other Orthodox 
churches, the Romanian patriarch today 
serves as the spiritual leader of Ortho- 
dox Romanians. 

A small minority of Romanians, main- 
ly in Transylvania, are members of the 
Eastern Rite Catholic church. Also 
known as Greek Catholics, they recog- 
nize the authority of the pope but follow 
the liturgy of the Orthodox church. In 
1948, the communists forced the Greek 
Catholics to unite with the Orthodox, but 
after 1989 they were restored to their 
former independent status. 

Many of Romania's Hungarians and 
Germans are either Roman Catholics or 
members of Lutheran and Calvinist 
(Reformed) churches. Adventists, Bap- 
tists, and other Protestant traditions are 
also represented. Romania was histori- 
cally an important center of Jewish cul- 
ture, but the tragedy of the Holocaust 
and decades of emigration have reduced 
the Jewish population to a tiny minority 
Other small religious groups, including 
Russian Orthodox sects and Muslim 
communities, practice their faith in the 
cultural patchwork of the Dobrogea 
region along the Black Sea. 

Modern Romanian culture is the 
product of centuries of interaction 
between local populations and succes- 
sive waves of immigration to the region. 
Until the mid- 19th century, Romanian 
was written in versions of the Cyrillic 
alphabet also used by Serbs, Bulgarians, 
and Russians. The vocabulary contains 
words of Turkic and Slavic origin. Music, 
dance, folk art, and religious traditions 
also share many commonalities with 
those of Hungarians, Slavs, Turks, and 
other Balkan peoples. Pre-Christian fes- 
tivals associated with the changing of 
the seasons were combined with saints' 
40 



days and other religious feasts after the 
coming of Christianity Many of these 
traditions are preserved among the 
country's large rural population. 

Persons linked to Romania have made 
a major impact in many cultural spheres. 
Artists such as sculptor Constantin 
Brancu§i reinterpreted traditional 
Romanian folk themes through the lens 



ditions, the Romanians inhabit a land of 
diverse landscapes, where local customs 
rituals, and ways of life have adapted to 
distinct physical environments: the 
woodlands of Transylvania and Mara- 
mure?, the plains of the west, the low- 
lands along the Danube river, and the 
urban cityscapes of Bucharest, la^i, and 
Cluj, ancient settlements that are today 



Gateways to Romanian Culture and History 

Suggested Readings and 
Films on Romanian and 
Moldovan Themes 



, 1994. Rumania, 1866-1947. 



Academic Works 

Deletant, Dennis. 1995. Ceau^escu and the 
Securitate: Coercion and Dissent in 
Romania, i 965- i 989. ArmonJc.N.Y.: 
M.E. Sharpe. Britain's foremost 




of modernism. Composers and writers 
such as George Enescu and Eugene 
lonesco likewise explored the bound- 
aries between custom and innovation. 
The philosopher of religions Mircea 
Eliade, the poet Paul Celan, the novelist 
Panait Istrati — as well as sports leg- 
ends such as Johnny Weismuller and 
Nadia Comaneci — have also hailed 
from Romania. Just as the country has 
been a gateway between East and West, 
so it has been a portal through which 
unique contributions to culture have 
reached the world. 

A people with a rich Latin heritage 
influenced by myriad other cultural tra- 



becoming nodal points in Romania's 
expanding array of private businesses, 
tourist outlets, and expatriate communi- 
ties. The folk culture of the peasant has 
long been seen as the embodiment of 
Romanian identity, but at the close of 
the millennium, Romanian culture is 
more than ever a dynamic combination 
of both tradition and modernity. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 19 '9 



authority on Romania offers an 
examination of the communist-era 
secret police based on his research in 
the still-classified archives. 

Federal Research Division. 1995.Be/flrMS 
and Moldova: Country Studies. Wash- 
ington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 
The second half of this volume, by 
William Crowther of UNC-Greens- 
boro, presents a very good overview 
of Moldovan history and politics. 

Hitchins, Keith. 1996. The Romanians, 
1774-1866. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
A masterful synthesis by the dean of 
Romanian historians in the United 
States. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Kligman, GaiL 1988. The Wedding of the 
Dead. Berkeley: University of Cali- 
fornia Press. A fascinating excursion 
into the folk rituals of northern 
Transylvania. 

Livezeanu, Irina. 1996. Cultural Politics in 
Greater Romania. Ithaca: Cornell 
University Press. A brilliant and 
readable analysis of the problems of 
state- and nation-building in 
Romania in the 1920s and 1930s. 

Memoirs, Journalism, and Literature 

Anton, Ted. 1996. Eros, Magic and the 
Death of Professor Culianu. Evanston: 
Northwestern University Press. A fas- 
cinating investigation into the 1991 
murder of a Romanian professor at 
the University of Chicago and possi- 
ble links with the Romanian far 
right. 

Funderburk, David B. 1997. Pinstripes 
and Reds. Washington, D.C.: Selous 
Foundation. A former U.S. ambas- 
sador's account of his battles with 
Ceau^escu, and with Washington. 

Malaparte, Kurzio. 1995. Kaputt. 

Evanston: Northwestern University 
Press. First-hand views of Romania 
during World War II, by the war cor- 
respondent for Corriere della Sera. 

Manea, Norman. 1993. Compulsory 
Happiness. Evanston: Northwestern 
University Press. Four short stories 
on the terrors of totalitarianism. 

Anything by Mihai Eminescu (the 
Romanian national poet). Ion Luca 
Caragiale (Romania's finest satirist), 
Paul Celan (Jewish-German poet 
born in Bucovina), Mircea Eliade 
(noted essayist, short-story writer, 
and professor of religion), or Emil 
Cioran (the dark and brooding voice 
of the "lost generation" of the 1920s). 
All have major works now available 
in English. 



Films 

Fortunes of War (BBC, 1992), starring 
Kenneth Branagh and Emma 
Thompson. An English professor and 
his wife travel through Romania and 
the Balkans in the 1930s, with the 
Nazis hot on their heels. The 
Bucharest Athenee Palace Hotel, 
where much of the action takes 
place, is now restored to its former 
grandeur. 

An Unforgettable Summer (Lucian Pin- 
tilie, 1991), starring Kristin Scott- 
Thomas. A film by one of Romania's 
most important contemporary direc- 
tors, which chronicles the fate of an 
army family sent to the Romanian- 
Bulgarian frontier in the 1920s. A 
searching portrayal of life on the 
turbulent border, as well as the 
moral and political complexity of 
Romania's interwar years. 
The Oak (Lucian Pintilie, 1992), starring 
Maia Morgenstern. A darkly funny 
story set in the waning years of the 
Ceau^escu regime, with gritty scenes 
shot in the environmental wasteland 
of Cop§a Mica. 

Web Resources 

The key source for Romanian and 
Moldovan links is the Web page of the 
Society for Romanian Studies, located at 
<http://www.huntington.edu/srs/>. The 
page has excellent links to pages on his- 
tory, art, culture, politics, economics, and 
many other fields. 

Charles King holds the Ion Rafiu Chair of 
Romanian Studies at Georgetown University, 
where he teaches courses on contemporary 
Southeast Europe, nationalism, and compara- 
tive politics. His books include Nations 
Abroad: Diaspora Politics and International 
Relations in the Former Soviet Union (1998) 
andlhe Moldovans: Negotiable Nationalism 
on a European Frontier (in press). He is a fre- 
quent traveler to Romania and Moldova and 
speaks fluent Romanian. 



41 



Traditional Music and 
Dance in Romania Today 

Colin Quigley, Zamfir Dejeu, 
and Constantin Costea 




any musical traditions are prac- 
ticed with great vitality in 
I Romania today, ranging from 
song and dance types that are rooted in a 
conservative peasant world of experience 
and that may carry ritual meanings, to 
manifestations of the most contemporary 
trends in commercialized "world music." 
Traditional music continues to be an im- 
portant part of the musical soundscape, 
from remote rural villages to sophisticat- 
ed urban centers. Traditions may be 
localized within a particular region, or 
they may be of wide circulation found in 
similar form throughout the country 
When traveling through Romania today, a 
visitor is most likely to encounter tradi- 
tional music and dance at organized cul- 
tural events celebrating the Romanian 
folk heritage. Between 1975 and the revo- 
lution of 1989, folk festivals were often 
part of a nationwide, organized program, 
the Song of Romania, used to select the 
best representatives of this heritage for a 
massive final performance every two 
years before the dictator Ceau§escu. This 
form of organization produced a stylized 
presentational manner of folklore perfor- 
mance as "spectacle" that was far 
removed from vernacular aesthetics in 
music and dance. Many of those who par- 
ticipated within this framework strove 
nevertheless to valorize authentic tradi- 
tions, and they continue their efforts to 
promote these traditions today, some- 
times experimenting with new models 
for staging traditional performance. At 
the same time there has always been a 
layer of traditional practice that contin- 

42 



//, 



'Atief ce treciprin Tutda 

A lyric doina sung by Vasile Soporan 



// 



Arie^ ce treciprin Turda 
Sd-mi aduci in vale mdndra 
Arie§ sd-mi aduci mdndra 
Sdmbdtd la Tdrg la Tiirda 

D'Arie^ de n-o aduci-mdi 
Prin Turda sd nu mai ur'i, mdi 
Sd te scurgi tat prin pamdnt 
Sd te usci cdnd bate vdnt ma 

Hai, sd-fi rdmdie matca goald 
Hai, sd sdfacd drum de fard 
Ldstartd sd-mi find umbra 
Cdnd vine mdndra la Turda. 
[Repeat last two lines] 



Arie^ [a river] that runs through Turda, 
Bring my love to me in the valley. 
Arie§, bring my love 
Saturday to the market fair in Turda. 

Arie^, if you don't bring her, 
No longer flow through Turda. 
Trickle deep into the earth, 
Dry up when the wind blows 

So your bed remains empty 
And makes a path through the country. 
Woods, cast your shade upon me 
When my love comes to Turda. 
[Repeat last two lines] 



ued without much overt institutional 
interference and that is not hard to find if 
one knows whom to ask. While quite 
resilient, these traditions have not been 
insulated from larger processes of social 
change aft'ecting the lives of tradition 
bearers. Many communities today have a 
disco in which young people gather to 
socialize and dance to the latest recorded 
hits, usually from the United States and 
Western Europe. The increased mobility 
of people within Romania and between 
Romania and the rest of Europe, the 
Balkans, and Asia Minor is having a pro- 
found effect on musical tastes. 1 have seen 
young people in Maramure^, for example, 
choose to dance to music from Banat at 
their engagement party, and lautari (pro- 
fessional musicians) such as the ensem- 
ble Taraf de Haidouks add musical com- 



positions in the style of Indian film music 
to their repertoire. 

Traditional Music and 
Its Customary Occasions 

Traditional artistic creation takes place as 
a part of everyday life, reflecting its cir- 
cumstances and conditions. Alongside the 
forms of oral literature (prose and verse, 
either sung or recited) stand musical, 
choreographic, and dramatic works. Some 
are performed only by women, others by 
men, children, or the elderly The mode of 
performance might be vocal, instrumen- 
tal, or a combination. Some traditions are 
integrated with calendar customs mark- 
ing cycles of rural life in which the basic 
preoccupations are agriculture and ani- 
mal husbandry There are also rituals for 
fertility and the reinvigoration of nature. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



The customs of mid-winter, from 
December 24 to January 7 — including 
the birth of the "invincible sun" at the 
winter solstice followed by the birth of 
lesus — are major occasions for celebra- 
tion. Colinde, traditional Christmas songs, 
are sung all over Romania by groups of 
carolers visiting homes throughout their 
communities. These songs are striking for 
their archaism and the richness of 
rhythms found in the simple melodies — 
all the more impressive when performed 
by groups without any special training, 
such as the cdlii,^cri from Ora^tioara de Jos 
in the Hunedoara region. Various tradi- 
tions are intended to bring plenty and 
happiness during the coming year. The 
oldest form of good-luck visit, going from 
house to house wearing animal masks 
(goat, deer, and bear), is practiced at New 
Year's, especially in Moldova. The vdlaretid 
group from the village of Voinesti in 
Moldova, who are at this year's Festival, 
provide a good example. Its members 
include afaiifard, or band using modern 
brass and woodwind instruments; they 
play specific traditional melodies for each 
of the masked characters they accompany, 
as well as a repertoire of regional dance 
tunes and even modern music such as the 
theme from Dallas, the American televi- 
sion series that once enjoyed great popu- 
larity in Romania. 

Music was always indispensable to 
shepherds, and this ancient pastoral 
occupation generated a musical reper- 
toire with particular characteristics. The 
power of sound served to control the ani- 
mals or to placate maleficent powers that 
might threaten the animals' health. The 
largest part of this pastoral repertoire is 
instrumental: played on buciiwi (a long 
wooden trumpet), corn (horn), tilinca (a 
flute without finger holes), flider (fipple 
flute), and cimpoi (bagpipe). Among the 
folkloric genres tied to this pastoral life 
are signals; lyrical instrumental 
melodies; magical melodies; sound 
"poems" with a moral sense such as the 
widely known "When the shepherd lost 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



his sheep"; the epic oral poem Miorifa, 
recognized as a high point of Romanian 
oral literature; and finally dances. 

Weddings and funerals play a central 
role in Romanian folklore tied to family 
life. Weddings include a series of 
moments with special significance 
intended to assure the passage of the 
young couple from one social state to 
another. These moments are strictly 



observed and associated with a musical 
repertoire as well as orated texts and 
specific dances. 

Other musical traditions are not linked 
to particular occasions. These genres 
include the dohia (lyric love song or so- 
called table song, for listening to while sit- 
ting around a table), cdntec hdtrdnesc 
(ballad or old song), and epic song. The 
doina is a melody of open form with lyric 



Folklore Today 

Mihai Pop 

If we regard folklore as a phenomenon 
both of ongoing human communica- 
tion and of developing social exchange, 
we can comprehend its current twofold 
existence. On one side is the traditional 
folklore of an independent rural society. 
On the other is the folklore that has be- 
come a consumer good in contemporary 
industrial society. 

What is the latter "consumer-goods 
folklore"? What is its relation with the 
traditional folklore? Who produces it? 
And in what shape is it consumed? 

The process by which traditional folk- 
lore has been created, preserved, and 
transmitted follows strictly established 
patterns and has been doing so for ages. 
Traditional folklore has particular lan- 
guages* and codes for their use, 
through which sacred, ceremonial, and 
artistic messages can be conveyed. 
These messages have meaning within a 
complex semiotic system. Such elabo- 
rate ancient codes cannot be taught, but 
are handed down from generation to 
generation like mother tongues. 

The consumer-goods folklore is above 
all a reproduction of the traditional one. 
It is a reproduction that is more or less 
faithful, depending on how it is actually 
consumed: the kinds of occasions, the 
audiences, and the producers themselves. 



Consumer-goods folklore follows fash- 
ion, as other consumer goods do. Today, 
the songs with rhythmical melodies, 
extracted from the repertory of dance 
music, are preferred to traditional lyric 
song, with its slow, sluggish melodies. For 
the same reason, very few epic songs are 
offered on the song market. 

Consumer goods also become stan- 
dardized. The freedom to make the indi- 
vidual variations characteristic of tradi- 
tional songs is being lost. Uniformity 
also results because those whose songs 
are for consumption at concerts and 
shows, on radio and TV, prefer the 
accompaniment of a folk music band or 
orchestra that has established stereo- 
types for accompaniment, unlike tradi- 
tional singers, who sing unaccompanied. 

The performers who make folklore 
reproductions are mostly outsiders. 
Good reproduction requires scientific 
knowledge of the reproduced songs, that 
is, of the language in which they were 
created and transmitted, of the signifi- 
cance of the signs, and of the way they 
are articulated in creation and perfor- 
mance. This knowledge is insufficient in 
the case of the outsiders, whose perfor- 
mance has become mostly mimicry. 
There are exceptions among extremely 
gifted interpreters as, for instance, the 
famous singer Maria Tanase, the musi- 
Continued on page 45 



* Editor's note: Professor Pop uses the word language generically to refer not only to speech itself but 
to the systematically structured, meaningful, and self-reflexive dimensions of traditional perfor- 
mance — such as music, graphic art, dance, and various forms of narrative. 



43 



"Florisdalbiledi 


maru" 


Dindintea ce dot curfu 


white flowers, white apple flowers 


Sun'doi meri aldturafu 


In front of the two courtyards. 


Din virvufu merilor 


There are two apple trees 


Siintu doud turturele 


Next to one another. 


Tinitt'doud luminele 


On top of the apple trees 


Dintr-im picur ce s-aface 


There are two turtle doves 


De s-ar face-on feredeu 


Keeping two little candles. 


Sd sd scalde taica men 


What will become of one candlewax drop? 


To'sd scaldd ^i sd-ntreabd 


It will make a tub 


Ce-i mat bun p-aist pdmintu 


To bathe my father in it. 


Nii-i mai bun ce bou-al bunu 


He keeps bathing and wondering: 


Cd rdvarsd brazdd tieagrd 


What is the best thing on this earth? 


^i samindgriu rosfioru. 


Nothing is better than a good ox 


Tot sd scaldd ^i sd-ntreabd 


Because he pours out a black furrow 


Ce-i mai bun p-aist pdmintu 


And plants red corn. 


Nu-i mai bun ca vaca-i bund 


He keeps bathing and wondering: 


Tot sd duce p ne-aduce 


What is the best thing on this earth? 


^i sara ^i dimineafa 


Nothing is better than a good cow 


Tot sd scaldd ^i sd-ntreabd 


Always bringing milk to us 


Ce-i mai buna p-aist pdmintu 


In the evening and in the morning. 


Nu-i mai bun ca calul bunu 


He keeps bathing and wondering: 


Can calica voinicu ma 


What is the best thing on this earth? 


^i ne scote di la rele 


Nothing is better than a good horse 


De la grele rdzboiele 


Because a brave young man mounts it 


Tot sd scaldd si sd-ntreabd 


And saves us from danger 


Ce-i mai bun p-aist pdmintu 


And from difficuh wars. 


Nu-i mai bun ca oaia-i bund 


He keeps bathing and wondering: 


Cdci cu Una te-ncdlzefte 


What is the best thing on this earth? 


Cu laptele te-ndidcepe 


Nothing is better than a good sheep 


Tot sd scaldd ^i sd-ntreabd 


Because it keeps you warm with its wool 


Ce-i mai bun p-aist pdmintu 


And makes you sweet with its milk. 


Nu-i mai bun caporcu-dl bunu 


He keeps bathing and wondering: 


Cd-i minci came la Crdciunu 


What is the best thing on this earth? 


C-o-nkindm cu sdndtate 


Nothing is better than a good pig 


Pe la gazde, pe la tote. 


Because you eat its meat on Christmas. 




We toast to your health 




To the hosts, to all of them. 


A colindd text from Ann Schuursma, 




"Colinde cu Dubd in Valea Mure^ului, 




Southwestern Transylvania [Hunedoara 




Province, Romania]." Ph.D. diss., UCLA, 




1987. Copyright © Ann Schuursma. 




The symbol of the apple tree is found 




frequently in colindd texts. 



44 



text that may be called by a variety of 
regionally specific terms, such as the "long 
song" in Oltenia or dejale (of sadness) in 
Moldova. In Maramure^, Lapu^, and 
Nasaud the doiria may be sung with 
iioduri, that is, punctuated by distinctive 
glottal interjections on certain vowel 
sounds, a technique that requires true vir- 
tuosity to master. A separate genre with- 
out ritual function is the ballad. This oral 
epic form, which employs more recital 
than the doina, is performed in general by 
lautari, typically Roma (Gypsy) profes- 
sional musicians, accompanied by violin, 
cobzn (lute), or lumbal (hammered dul- 
cimer). The subjects of ballads are diverse 
and include the exploits of bandits, shep- 
herds, brave heroes, and lovers. The rich- 
est genre, the most varied and at the same 
time the most widely distributed, is the 
song proper. It has a strophic form and is 
performed individually, sung in response 
to both hard times and happiness. 
Through song one confesses, cultivates a 
profound state of reflection, or expresses 
love, longing, sadness, or alienation. 

The Romanian people use a variety of 
musical instruments today, some very old 
in form, others newer and factory-made: 
simple leaves and fish scales (placed 
between the upper gum and tongue or the 
lower teeth and lip, to produce a clear and 
penetrating tone); many types of flutes; 
the nai (panpipe); relatives of the guitar; 
instruments of the violin family, often 
modified from their standard construc- 
tion; and modern instruments such as the 
accordion, clarinet, and saxophone. Some 
instruments are identified with particular 
regions and repertoires: the violin with 
horn (a Stroh violin) in Bihor, the taragot 
(like a large clarinet but with conical bore) 
in Banat, the trumpet in Moldova. The 
trio formation is found throughout the 
country, as it allows for melody, harmony, 
and rhythmic-harmonic accompaniment. 
The Transylvanian trio of violin, contra 
(viola), and contrabass is particularly well 
known. Instrumental music reaches its 
peak artistic value when it is joined with 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Traditional Music and Dance in Romania Today 



dance. Dance music takes hold to provoke 
a veritable euphoria; in fact, dance 
melodies are constructed to incite joy, to 
rouse the elemental energy of the body, 
focused in rhythmic movement, with a 
powerful role in physiological and implic- 
itly psychic release. 

Traditional Dance 

If song and story are, in general, the spe- 
cialty of gifted and talented individuals, 
popular dance is essentially a collective 
art — one that has great vitality in 
Romania and an important social role, 
even if sometimes it has been attenuated 
by modern developments and urbaniz- 
ing tendencies. In traditional village 
social life, dance was long the primary 
entertainment of Romanian peasants. 
In time it established particular rules for 
the observance of different festive occa- 
sions in which the community came 
together to celebrate important events 
in the life of individuals or of the village, 
such as baptisms, weddings, Sunday cel- 
ebrations (village dances), patron saints' 
days, or fairs in mountainous regions on 
holidays connected with pastoral life. 

Romanian folk dance is a singular phe- 
nomenon with an undeniable continuity, 
while at the same time revealing a great 
diversity in structure and style. The 
explanation of this remarkable diversity 
of choreographic forms must be sought 
first of all in the historical circumstances 
of the Romanian people, whose origins 
account for the presence of ancient Med- 
iterranean influences in dance, and sec- 
ond in the central position of Romania 
vis-a-vis the cultural currents of West 
and Southeast Europe, where both group 
dances and couple dances are character- 
istic. The Romanian repertoire includes 



dances of archaic style and simple struc- 
ture (some of them maintaining a ritual 
function), alongside men's dances with a 
complex harmonic structure and acro- 
batic elements — cdhi^er* (men's ritual 
team dance) and feciore^ti (men's display 
dance) — sometimes performed along 
with the more numerous Transylvanian 
couple dances. 

There are four main choreographic 
structures found in Romanian traditional 
dance. 

• Group dances, in which dancers are 
joined by holding hands, shoulders, 
or belts. The dance develops in a cir- 
cle, semi-circle, or a line. 

• Couple dances, in which the couples 
may be arranged in columns, a circle, 
line, or freely in the dance space. 
Partners are positioned either side by 
side or face to face, holding hands, 
shoulders, or in a ballroom social 
dance position. 

• Team dances, which in the majority 
of cases are men's dances of great vir- 
tuosity, and may be grouped as the 
dances of cdbi^eri, feciore^ti, or shep- 
herds. In these dances the partici- 
pants are not holding one another, 
and in some cases they carry a stick. 

• Solo dances, which often have a ritu- 
al character, being dance expressions 
of masked characters among pro- 
cessing celebrants at winter holidays, 
such as capra (goat), deer, bear, bear 
keeper, etc. 

Three principal styles, and two sub- 
styles, may be indentified with various 
folkloric regions. 

• The Dunarean dance style, which 
extends throughout the Romanian 
plain, comprising Oltenia and Mun- 
tenia up to approximately the sub- 



'The cdhiferiil of Transylvania and cdlu^ul of the Danube plain share similar names and were once closely relat- 
ed healing and fertility rituals performed by men. However, in Transylvania the dance is performed as part of 
winter customs, and its most widespread form stems from a cultivated revival as a national dance that dates to 
the mid- 19th century. Widespread throughout Romania in the 1 8th century as a healing ritual, Lnlii}iil is per- 
formed today as a summer custom and only in the south of Romania, where it can be found as a village ritual, 
town entertainment, in organized competitions, and in theatrical performance. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Folklore Today continued from page 43 

cian Gheorghe Zamfir (panpipe), the 
taragot interpreter Dumitru Farcas, the 
young singer Tijiana Mihali,and oth- 
ers. Creative usage and knowledge of 
traditional language can sometimes be 
observed at the level of consumer- 
goods folklore, too. 

When traditional folklore meets con- 
sumer-goods folklore that uses gen- 
uine expression, they can influence 
each other on the cultural stage. Local 
folkloric events can contribute to the 
preservation of tradition or create new 
forms of it. 

Folklore nowadays is definitely 
bifurcated, and its two components are 
bound to live together, at least for a 
while. The difference between them 
remains their function. Traditional 
folklore acts are messages of creative 
performers presented for their own 
sake or purposely addressed to equals 
in the community, serving a range of 
particular purposes within their tradi- 
tional context. The consumer goods 
have, for the time being, the status of 
mere replicas, like reproductions in the 
fine arts. They address the national 
community as a whole, effacing region- 
al differences. The complex structure 
of industrial society creates different 
levels of acceptance and functional 
diversity in folklore consumption. For 
their part, the professionals do not 
intend to communicate traditional 
folkloric messages but rather artistic 
messages that can be perceived as 
pleasant entertainment or a great, 
essentialized artistic experience.... 

Adapted from an article in Mihai Pop, 
Folclor romanesc 1: 237-47. 

Mihai Pop is professor emeritus and former 
head of folklore at the University of Bucha- 
rest, and former director of the Institute of 
Ethnography and Folklore "C. Brdiloiii." 



45 



Carpatic hills, as well as Dobrogea. The 
principal characteristic of this style is 
the preponderance of group circle and 
line dances. Towards the Carpathian 
foothiOs, one may also find the men's 
ritual cdlu:^ dances of summer 

• The Transilvanian dance style found 
in an area comprising the upper 
basin and middle of the Mure§ River, 
the Transylvanian plateau, and the 
Some§ basin. In this stylistic region 
couple dances predominate along 
with men's dances. Integrated here 
are also the cdlu^er dances of winter. 
The folkloric regions Oa^, Cri^urilor, 
Campia Mure^ului, and a large part 
of the Apuseni mountain region rep- 
resent a distinct "western" substyle 
characterized by a preponderance of 
couple dances in lines, as well as par- 
ticular men's dances. 

' The Carpatic dance style, which 
extends over both slopes of the Car- 
pathian Mountains (southern and 
eastern), southern Banat, the sub- 
Carpatic regions of Oltenia, Mun- 



tenia, and Moldova, as well as the 
south and a strip of eastern Tran- 
sylvania. In this stylistic zone group 
dances are found in an equal balance 
with numerous couple dances, and 
the two are often seamlessly integrat- 
ed in performance. In a distinct sub- 
style, the folk dances of Podi§ul and 
Campia Moldovei feature couple 
dances (polcufe, invartite simple) 
specific to this area. 
Of course the delimitation of style areas 
can only be approximate, and there are 
many zones of interpenetration. But it is 
possible to assert that the Carpatic 
dance style region, because of its geo- 
graphic position as a gateway that facili- 
tated an intense cultural and economic 
exchange among the historic provinces 
of Romania, constitutes the principal 
link in the unity of Romanian folk dance 
— a unity evident in the particular pat- 
terns of syncopated rhythm found in 
almost all dance types and styles. 

Traditional dance in Romania has 
been subject to stylization when repre- 



sented on stage over the last 50 years. 
Young Romanians watch Western music 
videos and learn hip-hop moves along 
with youths around the world. Yet strong 
local traditions persist that are resistant 
to these influences. Cdlu^ari like those 
from Opta§i in Oltenia dance on the rit- 
ual occasion of Rusalii, visiting homes 
throughout their village to bring the 
community health and fertility On 
Christmas Day in 1998, 15 young cdlu^eri 
sang colinde and danced throughout 
Ora^tioara de los, in Hunedoara. After 
services on Sundays throughout the year 
the young men of Oa§ organize village 
dances with traditional fiddlers playing 
their reconstructed violins called cetere, 
while dancers wearing a mixture of tra- 
ditional and modern dress fill the ciu- 
perca (mushroom), as the community 
dance pavilion is called. In these com- 
munities and others throughout 
Romania, traditional music and dance 
retain their power to enact participants' 
social relations and express their energy 
for life. 



Suggested Reading 
and Listening 

Alexandru, Tiberiu. 1980. Romanian Folk 
Music. Bucharest: Musical Publishing 
House. 

Brailoiu, Constantin. 1984. Problems of 
Ethnomusicology. Edited and trans- 
lated by A.L. Lloyd. Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press. 

Giurchescu, Anca,with Sunni Bloland. 
1995. Romanian Traditional Dance. 
Mill Valley, California: Wild Flower 
Press. 

The Edge of the Forest: Romanian Music 
from Transylvania. Music of the 
World GDI- 144. 

Les Faubourgs d'Antan — The Districts 
of Yesteryear. Musique du Monde/ 
Music from the World CD 92661-2. 

Romania: String Quartet of Transylvania. 
Musique du Monde/Music from the 
World CD 92560-2. 

46 



Taraf: Romanian Gypsy Music. Music of 

the World CDT- 137. 
Taraf de Haidouks. Nonesuch CD 79554-2. 
Traditional Music of Romania. Musique 

du Monde/Music from the World 

CD 92517-2. 
Village Music from Romania: Constantin 

Brailoiu Collection. Archives 

Internationales de Musique 

Populaire AIMP 9, 1 0, and 1 1 ; 

CD-537,538,539. 



Colin Quigley is associate professor in the I 
Department of World Arts and Cuhures, i 

University of California, Los Angeles. Curator I 
of the Gateways to Romania program, he was I 
a Fidhright senior research fellow at the 
Institute for Cuhural Anthropology, Faculty '■ 
of European Studies, Babe^-Bolyai University, 
in Cluj-Napoca, 1997-99. 

Zamfir Dejeu is senior researcher at the 
Arhiva de Folclor, Academia Romaniei, in \ 
Cluj-Napoca. He is the author of several col- 
lections of music and dance from 
Transylvania. He has also directed the widely 
traveled ensemble Somesul Napocafor the 
last 25 years. 

Constantin Costea is a senior researcher in 
dance at the Institute of Ethnography and 
Folklore "C. Brailoiu" in Bucharest. He is the 
author of numerous articles and several 
books on Romanian traditional dance, in 
particular the men's dances of Transylvania. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 , 



Traditional Arciiitecture 

luiiana Ciotoiu and Mihai Dancu^ 



Romanian Village 
Architecture 

"What makes a Romanian village 
special? It reveals an eternal 
youth. . . and a perpetual rejuvena- 
tion. . . . Its deep poetry comes from 
its spiritual treasures. Tradition 
here is a continuous renewal and 
victory. . .just like nature." 
^George Matei Cantacuzino, architect 



R 



omanian village architecture is 
characterized tlrst and foremost 
I by its rich understanding of 
nature. Houses are generally located 
away from the main street and are subtly 
inserted in the landscape. When built 
along the valleys, the angle of the roof 
follows the slope of the mountains; when 
built on the plains, the roof line is hori- 
zontal. The stone, wood, thatch, and clay 
used as construction materials come 
from the land nearby Orientation is 
determined by the sun, with windows 
mostly facing east, south, or southeast. 

The plan of the traditional house runs 
longitudinally from front to back, with 
the heating system as the focal point. 
Heat is essential U all major household 
activities: cooking, baking bread, sleep- 
ing, smoking food in the attic, and 
warming the adjacent rooms. To maxi- 
mize the distribution of heat throughout 
the house, the stove is placed in the cen- 
tral space. Then furniture such as a bed 
or table is arranged in the corners of the 
room. Tapestries, pottery, stained glass, 
painted wood, costumes, kitchenware, as 
well as the low ceiling and the use of 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




beams give the traditional house a warm 
and intimate ambience. 

Rooms communicate directly with the 
porch. Lower or higher, situated on one 
or more sides, the porch dominates the 
fa(^ade of traditional houses and assures 
a fluid connection between the interior 
and exterior space. The handrail of the 
porch is the equilibrium line or horizon, 
balancing the fields of shadow and light 
falling on the fa(^ade. The porch also 
helps give the traditional house a hori- 
zontal rather than vertical aspect. 

G.M. Cantacuzino, professor at the 
Institute of Architecture in Bucharest 
and a great scholar of traditional 
Romanian architecture, remarked: 

I said once that the Romanian peas- 
ant is our best architect. He thor- 
oughly described how to harmonize a 
manmade construction with the cli- 



A wooden house from 
Gorj (18th century). 

Photo iourtesy Village 
Museum, Bucharest 



mate, geography, and social environ- 
ment. His sensibility inspired the 
forms. Traditional peasant architec- 
ture is a great lesson: [it] created the 
background for Romanian decorative 
art and was a unifying characteristic 
for this people very much like [their] 
language. 

Indeed, the basic elements in traditional 
Romanian architecture — its function- 
ality, adaptation of purpose and means, 
balance in proportions and decoration, 
artistic value, and tit with the landscape 
— confer on it a sense of unity and a 
unique personality. 

— Miana Ciotoiu 

luliana Ciotoiu is senior architect at the 
Village Museum, Bucharest, specializing in 
traditional Romanian architecture. 

47 




Architecture in Maramure^ 

naramure? is distinguished by its 
wooden buildings: houses, mills, 
churches, and gates. 

Churches have played an important 
role in Romanian history They are the 
places where ancient documents were 
preserved; where decisions were taken by 
the wise men of the village in difficult 
times; where the national consciousness 
was kept alive in periods of upheaval; 
where people were christened, married, 
and buried. The steeple allowed people to 
survey the entire area of their village, and 
it was a special tolling of the bells that 
announced not only invasions but also 
devastating fires or raging floods. In 
short, the church provided warning and 
protection for the village. Obviously, 
therefore, the villagers would be con- 
cerned with the appearance and location 
of the structure. 

Almost all the churches which date 
from the 18th century were built in the 
place of older ones which had been 
burnt by the Tartars during their last 
European invasion (1717) and were 
identical to the originals. The plan gen- 
erally consisted of three rooms — the 
altar, the nave, and the narthex on an 
east-west axis — and sometimes had an 
open, west-oriented porch. The main 
features are the very high, sloping, two- 
level roof and the arrow-shaped steeple. 
Because of their general architectural 
profile, many researchers consider them 
to be in the Gothic style: "Maramure§ 
Gothic." Such important architectural 
examples exist in all the villages of 
Maramure§; religious ceremonies are 
still held in some of them, while others 
are protected by national heritage 
preservation laws. 

The famous "Maramure? gates" can be 
found in every village. They continue to 
be built and are the pride of Maramure§ 
villagers. 

— Mihai Ddncu^ 




A Maramure^ gate and church. Photo courtesy Village Museum, Bucharest 



Suggested Reading 

Bratulescu, Victor. 1941. "Churches from 
Maramure§," The Bulletin of the 
Commission for Historical 
Monwmenfs, XXXIV, fasc. 107-110. 

Cristea, G. 1989. In the Land of Wooden 
Churches. Sibiu. 

Dancu§, Mihai, 1986. The Maramure^ 
Ethnographic Region. Bucharest. 

Godea, I., Cristache Godea, I. Panait. 1978. 
Wooden Churches. Oradea. 

Porumb, Marius. 1982. Monuments of 
History and Religious Art from Vad, 
Feleac and Cluj Archepiscopate. 
Cluj-Napoca. 



Mihai Dancu^ has been director of the 
Ethnographic Museum ofMaramure^ since 
1976 and is president of the Open- Air 
Museums of Romania. He holds a doctorate 
in ethnology and is the author of a number 
of important studies on Romanian popular 
culture and traditions. 



48 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Romanian Foodways: 
A Crossroads of Tastes 



Nicolae Constantinescu 



p 



44 ^^B oftd buna!" and "Nowcr — 
'Bo/; rtppewr and "Cheers!" 
— are often the first words 
that many visitors to Romania learn. And 
with good reason, for the rich and diverse 
cuisine of Romania is one of the coun- 
try's treasures. In Romanian cooking the 
hearty meats and vegetables of Central 
Europe meet the aromatic herbs and 
spices of the Mediterranean and lands 
farther east. The sharp smells of cheese 
with onion or of garlic sauce mingle with 
the delicate scents of vanilla and cinna- 
mon. The plainest meals of grilled meats 
or" Romanian eggs" (poached eggs) can 
be accompanied by more elaborate dishes 
such as stufted grape leaves served with 
yogurt or sour cream. At Easter and other 
holidays, tables groan beneath the weight 
of cold cuts and sausages, white cheeses 
made from the milk of sheep and cows, 
fresh and pickled vegetables, tomato and 
vegetable stews, and sugary cakes and 
sweet breads. 

But above all these smells and tastes 
one food reigns supreme: bread (pdine, 
from the Latin panem). At private homes 
and in restaurants, meals are always 
served with a full basket of freshly cut 
bread. Made of wheat tlour, water, and 
yeast, the bread in older times was baked 
under a simple clay dome. Besides daily 
bread, there is ritual bread, compulsory 
at holidays, celebrations, and feasts. 
Ritual bread may take the shape of a 
knot or braid (colac), a pretzel (covrig), a 
flat cake (turtd), or a sweet-cream cheese 
cake (pascd):, the shape and decorations 
vary according to the ritual function. The 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Sweet Cheese-filled Placinta 

(pronounced pla-CHEEN-ta) 

THE DOUGH: 500 grams/17 'A ounces flour (about 2 'A cups) 
3 tablespoons oil 
1 teaspoon salt 
1 cup warm water 

Place the flour in the middle of a very large sheet of waxed paper or 
other preparation board (72" x 96"). In the middle of it add the oil, the 
salt, and the cup of warm water. Mix the ingredients with a tablespoon 
and then use two hands. The dough should be soft. If necessary add more 
water. Leave the dough in a warm, dry place, covered with a warm cloth, 
for 10 minutes. Make a one-inch-thick layer of dough and leave it covered 
with a cloth for an additional 15 minutes. Sprinkle more flour on the 
preparation board and then make a very thin layer of dough (like a sheet 
of paper) the size of the whole preparation board. Trim the edges to fit 
the preparation board, and leave the dough to dry for a few minutes 
before use. 



THE FILLING: 



300 grams/ 10 Vi ounces ricotta cheese 

30 grams/ 10 ounces fresh butter 

V: tablespoon flour 

2 eggs 

'/: cup milk 

sah 

2 tablespoons melted butter 



The very thin layer of dough needs to be cut in pieces that match a 
9" X 12" rectangular baking pan. Mix the cheese, butter, milk, flour, eggs, 
and salt together. Coat the baking pan with melted butter, add one layer 
of the thin dough; coat with melted butter; repeat this action layering 
dough and coating with butter four more times. Add the cheese mixture 
and level it. Then add three more dough layers as explained previously. 
Sprinkle butter on the placinta and put it in the oven at 350 F for 30-45 
minutes or until the top layer is golden brown. When done, cut the 
placinta into squares and serve warm with powdered sugar on top or 
with sweet or sour cream. 



49 



most common symbols pressed into the 
dough just before baking are the cross, 
the circle (representing the sun), the 
bird, and human figures. Another, newer 
kind of ritual sweet bread is the cozoiiac, 
made from wheat flour, yeast, milk, eggs, 
and butter. Crushed nuts, raisins, poppy 
seeds, and sometimes cocoa and Turkish 
delight are also added. Colivd, boiled 



{Imrduf or ca^), rolled into balls, and 
broiled on coals until the cheese melts. 
Mdmdliga also may be combined with 
any vegetable or meat dish, especially 
stuffed cabbage. 

Although the name for these stuffed 
cabbage rolls {sarma) comes from the 
Turkish (also sarma), and the dish is 
similar to that found throughout 



In Romanian cooking the hearty 
meats and vegetables of Central 
Europe meet the aromatic herbs 
and spices of the Mediterranean 
and lands farther east. 



wheat grains sweetened with sugar and 
honey and mbced with nuts, is served at 
funerals. 

As befits a population known for the 
cultivation of grains, another grain dish 
is the most beloved of Romanian tradi- 
tional foods. Mdmdliga, a kind of por- 
ridge or polenta, is prepared by boiling 
corn meal (formerly millet flour) with 
salt in a special cast iron pot. When the 
water is reduced and the porridge has 
become thick, the mdmdliga is turned 
out of the pot onto a wooden board, 
allowed to cool slightly, then cut into 
slices and served. Eating mdmdliga by 
itself is a sign of poverty Traditionally, it 
is eaten with milk, sour cream, and 
cheese [mdmdligd cu brdtizd ^i 
smdntdnd) — products of the oldest 
activities of Romanian peasants, breed- 
ing cattle and raising sheep. The milk, 
boiled in the pot the porridge has been 
cooked in, has an excellent and unique 
taste. Shepherds at the sheepfold boil the 
porridge for an hour or more, then cut 
it, using a string, into large pieces. These 
are mixed with special sheep cheeses 

50 



southeastern Europe, in Romania they 
are called endearingly "little sarmale" 
[sdrmdlufe) and are thought of as being 
part of the national cuisine. A mixture of 
ground pork and/or beef, onions, rice, 
and spices is wrapped in pickled cab- 
bage leaves; these are slowly boiled in 
special pans (earthenware in some 
regions), then baked in the oven until 
they are golden brown, and finally 
served with "little mdimUigd" 
(mdmdligufd) and a rich paprika sauce. 
In summer the cabbage leaves are re- 
placed with grape, garden sorrel, or 
even linden tree leaves. 

Another mincemeat dish, also of 
Oriental origin but fully assimilated 
into Romanian cuisine, is mititei. It is 
made of beef and lamb minced twice, 
mixed with spices, formed by hand into 
finger-shaped pieces, then grilled over 
charcoal. 

Romania's rich agricultural land and 
long growing season provide a wealth of 
fruits and vegetables, which are central 
to traditional Romanian cooking. Vege- 
tables can be eaten fresh (i.e., onions. 



tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, radishes 
with cheese, garlic with bacon, lettuce 
with oil and vinegar), cooked (green 
peppers roasted on the kitchen range, 
eggplant salad, or salatd de vinete), or 
pickled (sauerkraut from white or red 
cabbage, cucumbers, autumn tomatoes, 
peppers, cauliflower, celery). Romanian 
housewives are famous for the various 
and ingenious ways in which they pre- 
pare pickles each autumn. 

Fish from the Danube and the Black 
Sea, combined with a garlic sauce, are 
also an important part of seasonal and 
regional cuisines. 

While Americans have general labels 
for foods such as "cheese" and "soup," 
Romanians make distinctions between 
different types of these foods. Brdnzd is 
a pungent white cheese made from 
sheep or cow's milk, while ca§caval is a 
yellow cheese similar to Swiss. Likewise, 
supd is a thin meat or vegetable broth, 
while ciorbd is a thick, slightly sour stew 
best eaten with both a spoon and a fork. 

With respect to drinks, the pride of 
place is accorded to wine, each region of 
Romania having its famous vineyards. 
Varieties from Murfatlar and Tarnave, 
for example, have found their way to 
Western markets. But a Romanian meal 
always starts with a little glass of f idea, a 
natural alcohol made from fruit (gener- 
ally plums but also pears, apples, apri- 
cots, sweet cherries), distilled once in 
Muntenia and Moldova and twice in 
Transylvania. It has miraculous thera- 
peutic value when drunk moderately, in 
addition to whetting the appetite and 
starting the conversation flowing. 

Nicolae Constantinescu was educated at the 
University of Bucharest (Ph.D., 1971) and is 
professor of folklore and head of ethnology 
and folklore at the university. He is the author 
of several books on folklore and ethnology. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Romanian Pottery 
and Ceramics 



Georgeta Ro^u 



The creation of objects in clay 
is one of the oldest traditional 
crafts in Romania, developed 
among people who held in high esteem 
those who worked with fire. Along with 
metalworkers, potters were considered 
sacred keepers of the forces of nature, 
since earth and fire were believed to 
have magical properties. 

To make the pottery, clay was taken 
from the hills around villages. The 
manner of preparing the clay was 
similar from one region to another, and 
became one of the unifying elements 
in Romanian culture. 

In addition to many objects made of 
wood, textiles, metal, and other materi- 
als, traditional Romanian households 
have a great variety of ceramic objects. 
These include the ulcior, a slender- 
necked vessel for liquids; the strachiua, 
a shallow serving dish; and mugs 
{cdni). Such objects are normally deco- 
rated with a variety of suggestive 
motifs: snakes and birds, horses, and 
anthropomorphic representations that 
evoke fertility and divine protection for 
the household. Clay miniatures are also 
used as children's toys and are decorat- 
ed with birds, dogs, bells, women in 
dresses, horses, and other motifs. In 
the daily activities of the household, 
pottery serves both practical and deco- 
rative functions. 

Today in Romania there are three 
general types of ceramics: 
• Black ceramics: The distinctive 
dark color is produced by firing the 
ceramics with a reduced amount of 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




Wedding ulcior, Oltenia. 

Photo courtesy Ronnuiiaii Peasant Museum 



51 



Along with metalworkers, potters 
were considered sacred keepers 
of the forces of nature, since 
earth and fire were believed to 
have magical properties. 




Plate from Horezu, Oltenia. 

Horezu is an important ceramics 

center. Photo courtesy Romanian Peasant Museum 

oxygen. The decoration is simple 
and geometric (straight lines, zig- 
zags, or spirals). Black ceramics are 
produced in several centers in 
Moldova and Transylvania. 
• Red ceramics: These unglazed 
ceramics are covered with a white 
or brown slip (engobe) with wavy 
or spiral Hnes. They also may be 
covered with another layer of clay, 
on which impressions are produced 
with the fingers. Widely found in 
Muntenia, Oltenia, and Transyl- 
vania, red ceramics are used espe- 

52 



cially in 
households for 
storing and preserv- 
ing meats, vegetables, 
and cereals. 
• Glazed ceramics: This type is pro- 
duced throughout Romania and 
uses a glaze prepared from metallic 
oxides, which gives the pottery a 
green, brown, or yellow color. 
A variety of techniques are used to 
decorate the pottery Incision (with fin- 
gernails, combs, or other objects) is 
one of the oldest methods. The designs 
are simple, usually linear or more 
rarely spiral or meandering lines. 
Excision involves creating relief work 
on the surface of the object. Bands or 
braids of clay may also be applied to 
the surface of the pottery, both as a 



way of increasing the strength of the 
vessel and of creating a decorative 
effect. The bands may be decorated 
with finger impressions or small inci- 
sions as well. Ornamental decorations 
made by hand may be attached to the 
vessel, including stylized representa- 
tions of birds and animals, flowers, or 
bunches of grapes. Painting with 
brushes or other instruments is also 
practiced, with the potter forming lines 
and spirals in the finish as well as 
designs in the form of teardrops. The 
"teardrop" pattern is achieved by paint- 
ing several concentric lines in different 
colors and allowing the painted lines to 
run into each other. The most widely 
used colors are white, yellow, red, 
green, and black. 

A remarkable synthesis between art 
and technology, pottery has occupied 
many generations of craftsmen. 
Important masters include Victor and 
Eufrosina Vic^oreanu, Marin C. Tru§ca, 
Grigore Ciungulescu, Ion Raducanu, 
Dumitru §chiopu, Marin Murga^anu, 
Constantin Colibaba, lonica Stepan, 
Marin Nicolae, Gheorghe and Maria 
lorga, Dumitru Mischiu, and Dumitru 
Pa«;caniuc. 

Although changes have occurred in 
the function of pottery, it remains a 
central element of interior decor. 
Plates, bowls, vases, toys, and other 
objects — harmoniously integrating 
form, color, and proportion — contin- 
ue to be displayed in modern Roman- 
ian homes, as well as traditional ones. 

Georgeta Ro^u is an ethnologist and depart- 
ment director at the Romanian Peasant 
Museum. To date she has published Clay 
Toys and Wedding Ewers. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



City Life 

Irina Nicolau 



Large or small, old or new, Roman- 
ian cities have one thing in com- 
mon: unlike Western European 
cities, which have evolved for several 
centuries entirely separate from the vil- 
lage, they preserve strong connections 
with the rural world. This is evident 
especially in the way city people form 
relationships within families, among 
neighbors, friends, and even in the 
workplace. 

Traditions and customs that revolved 
around the court, the churches, and the 
various guilds once thrived in Romanian 
cities. The calendar was filled with holi- 
days and festivities. People were reli- 
gious but also eager to celebrate. In the 
17th century, for example, Bucharest had 
100 churches and over 3,000 pubs and 
liquor stores. It was as if Bucharest 
dwellers divided their lives between 
wine and God. 

Most of the older urban traditions 
faded in the 19th century with modern- 
ization and later with the mass culture 
that was imposed by 45 years of com- 
munism, rejected after 1989. Traditional 
folklife in Romanian cities persists, 
though, in family ceremonies (baptisms, 
engagements, weddings, funerals, start- 
ing a new home) and holiday celebra- 
tions (Christmas, Easter). Happy or sad 
occasions become opportunities for 
people to get together, eat, drink, bring 
each other presents, dance, and sing. 
Romanian city people don't like the 
anonymity and loneliness that are com- 
mon in Western urban life, and so such 
gatherings are taken seriously Parties 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




Guests dance a hora at a recent wedding reception at the Moldova Restaurant in Bucharest. 

Photo coiirtesv Ai}dreea Dersidaii 



on residential streets with private hous- 
es are known to involve the entire 
neighborhood. Things follow the same 
pattern in apartment buildings, which 
function as "vertical" streets: people 
lend each other money, a cup of oil, or 
extra chairs for a party Such gestures 
are reminiscent of the solidarity we find 
in the smaller villages. 

As for recent changes in city folklife, 
young people show a keen interest in 
new and foreign influences. As an exam- 
ple, Halloween began to be celebrated by 
some in Bucharest in 1998. On the other 
hand, a very popular form of city folk- 
lore, bancitl — anecdotes or jokes told at 
work, while standing in line, on the bus, 
or during any get-together — has been 



observed less frequently since 1989. 
Economic and political realities demand 
more of people's time and dampen their 
sense of humor. 

Ir'ma Nicolau holds a Ph.D. in ethnology and 
is a department director at the Romanian 
Peasant Museum. Her specializations are oral 
history, urban ethnology, and the cultural his- 
tory of Balkan Ronumiaus, and she is the 
author of three books. 



53 



Dracula: 
Hero or Villain? 

Radu R. Florescu 



D 



Iracula is the real name of a 
Wallachian ruler, also known to 
Romanian chroniclers as Vlad 
the Impaler. Dracula is a derivative of 
his father's name, Dracul, which in 
Romanian means the devil. According to 
those more charitably inclined, the 
father was so known because he had 
been invested by the Holy Roman 
Emperor with the Order of the Dragon, 
dedicated to fighting "the Infidel." 
Dracula was, therefore, either the son of 
evil or the son of good, villain or hero. 

Dracula ruled the Romanian princi- 
pality of Wallachia on three separate 
occasions: in 1448, from 1456 to 1462, 
and, briefly, shortly before his assassina- 
tion in 1476. These dates correspond to 
one of the most crucial periods in the 
country's history Constantinople had 
fallen in 1453, most of the lands south of 
Wallachia had been converted into 
Turkish pashaliks, and the last hero of 
the Balkan crusades, John Hunyadi, had 
died in the plague of Belgrade in 1456. 
The Danube was thus the frontier of 
Christendom at a time when Moham- 
med the Conqueror was planning fur- 
ther Turkish inroads. 

Little is really known about Dracula in 
the West beyond the best-selling Gothic 
novel written by Bram Stoker in 1897, 
which inspired innumerable Hollywood 
productions. The novel, partially set in 
Transylvania, contains three brief refer- 
ences to actual historical events and 
mentions the towns of Cluj, Bistri^a, and 
the Borgo Pass — but the bloodsucking 
vampire is a clear distortion of the his- 
torical personage. The first Romanian 

54 




Left: Portrait of Dracula 
at Castle Ambras, near 
Innsbruck, Austria. The 
artist is unknown, but 
this appears to be a 
copy painted during the 
second half of the 16th 
century from an earlier 
original that was proba- 
bly painted during 
Dracula's imprison- 
ment at Buda or 
Visegrad after 1462. 



Right: The Chindia 
watchtower at Tirgo- 
vi^te; a 19th-century 
reconstruction. Apart 
from its role as an 
observation post, it 
enabled Dracula to 
watch impalements in 
the courtyard below. 
Images courtesy 
Radu R. Florescu 



chronicle which mentions Dracula, dat- 
ing from almost a century after his 
death, labels him Vlad the Impaler and 
confines his notoriety to the building of 
the famous castle and the monastery of 
Snagov where presumably he lies buried, 
though his body has never been found. 
Romanian historians have shied away 
from using the name Dracula, unlike 
most contemporary sources both in 
Eastern and Western Europe. It was as 
Dracula that he was known to the 
Byzantine, Turkish, Venetian, Hungarian, 



Genoese, English, and French chroniclers 
of the l5th century It is also in this guise 
that he is known in what might be 
described as the first Russian novel, 
entitled Story about Prince Dracula, 
appearing in over 1 1 versions from the 
15th to the 18th centuries. German 15th- 
century stories also refer to the original 
name: Voievod Dracula. With the inven- 
tion of printing, these narratives became 
best sellers by the standards of the peri- 
od, four centuries before Stoker wrote 
his famous book. To these we may add a 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




rich compendium of Romanian folkloric 
material collected in the region of 
Dracula's castle. 

Why should these tales have historical 
validity? The answer lies in a very simple 
fact: although they vary in some details 
and ethical interpretation, there is a 
remarkable coincidence between the 
German, Russian, and Romanian 
Dracula stories. While Germans and 
Russians use the name Dracula, the 
Romanian oral tradition labels the 
prince Vlad the Impaler, substantiating 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



the fact that Dracula and the Impaler 
were one and the same personage. 

Hero or villain? The balance in 20th- 
century "vampire" parlance, with Bela 
Lugosi in mind (Lugosi, incidentally, 
was born in Lugoj, in Banat), accents the 
villainous aspects. Even the l5th- and 
16th-century Russian and German sto- 
ries about the man make a point of 
emphasizing Dracula's horrors, and the 
Romanian chroniclers have not labeled 
him the Impaler in vain. We are indeed 
far removed from the hero. Yet the inter- 
pretation of history is often a matter of 
the times, and moral standards are rela- 
tive. Mass killings and torture of oppo- 
nents were not Dracula's exclusive pre- 
rogatives. Impalement was an Asiatic 
method of torture widely practiced by 
the Turks. Moreover, before we study a 
historical character, we must take into 
account the historian's parti pris. 

Let us recall that the more intimate 
details of Dracula's life were recorded by 
adversaries. The German pamphlets 
were written by emigre Catholic monks 
and Saxon merchants from Transyl- 
vanian townships that aroused Dracula's 
anger because they refused to pay tolls. 
Dracula attacked them, and a few 
escaped to the West. To dramatize their 
plight, they often exaggerated their mis- 
fortunes and besmirched Dracula's rep- 
utation. The author of the Russian nar- 
ratives, a representative of the Grand 
Duke of Moscow at Buda, had a different 
reason for vilifying Dracula's character: 
terror was a useful tool in establishing 
future despots of Russia. Ivan the 
Terrible modeled some of his tortures 
on Dracula's (for instance, nailing the 
hats on the heads of impolite ambas- 
sadors). In the eyes of Orthodoxy, 
Dracula was anti-Christ, because, fol- 
lowing his remarriage to a relative of 
King Mathias Corvinus of Hungary, he 
repudiated his traditional faith and con- 
verted to Catholicism. Thus the 
Russians hated Dracula on religious 
grounds (or stressed his villainous 



aspects as a positive role model for 
rulers), the Germans because he massa- 
cred them, the Turks because he fought 
them — each group had an obvious 
reason for defaming him. 

When historians quarrel, it is some- 
times healthy to invoke the rough and 
ready sense of justice of the people, par- 
ticularly when, in the absence of docu- 
ments, we have no other recourse. More 
impartial than the chroniclers, the peas- 
ants had a definite feeling for this 
prince, and in their oral tradition they 
rationalized Dracula's crimes, aware of 
the great dangers their country was fac- 
ing both from the West and more partic- 
ularly from the East. 

All contemporary sources looked upon 
Dracula as the only Christian crusader 
to answer the call of Pope Pius II, who 
dared single-handedly to challenge the 
power of the Turkish sultan Mohammed 
the Conqueror, he being intent upon 
weakening the remaining free Balkan 
states. Facing overwhelming forces 
(40,000 against an army of 100,000), 
Dracula had to stage a strategic retreat, 
relying on a scorched-earth policy and 
harrying tactics under cover of the vast 
forest of the Wallachian plain. Although 
the capital city of Tirgovi^te had to be 
abandoned, Dracula left thousands of 
impaled cadavers, picket-fence fashion, 
north of the city This terror had its 
impact on the sultan, who cried out: 
"What can we do against a man who 
commits such deeds!" 

Much ink has been spent on the idle 
controversy centering on the problem of 
who won the war. By November 1462, 
Dracula was compelled to abandon his 
throne in favor of his brother Radu the 
Handsome, a Turkish protege. The Turks 
were war-weary, short of food, plague- 
ridden, threatened with Hungarian 
intervention from Transylvania (which 
Dracula had solicited), and, persuaded 
by the scale of Dracula's impalements, 
withdrew the bulk of their forces during 
the month of Ramadan in 1462. On the 

55 



"Impale Forest," 

engraving from a 

German pamphlet 

published in 

Strassburgin 1500. 



Other hand, with most boyars rallying to 
Radu and his own army melting away, 
Dracula was forced to retreat to his cas- 
tle in the Carpathians and thence threw 
himself on the tender mercies of King 
Mathias. The latter, instead of sending 
help, imprisoned Dracula in a tower of 
his Visegrad palace on the Danube, 
where Dracula was technically under 
"house arrest" for some 12 years. He 
died in December 1476, killed by a boyar 
opponent or a Turk who decapitated 
him and sent his head to Constantinople 
for all to see that the dreaded impaler 
was no more. His tragic end should not 
obscure the fact that his determined 
resistance helped preserve the integrity 
of the Wallachian state. This single ser- 
vice to the nation helps tilt the balance 

56 




in favor of Dracula "the hero." 

It was upon reading the book of an 
obscure 19th-century English consul- 
historian which he found in the Whitby 
Library in England that Bram Stoker 
decided to change the title of his Gothic 
novel from The Vampire Count to 
Dracula. Then the name of an obscure 
Romanian prince gained world recogni- 
tion by way of the silver screen. It is now 
up to the Romanians to use this unique 
and extraordinary accident of history to 
their advantage in an intelligent fashion. 



Suggested Reading 

Florescu, Radu, and Raymond T. McNally. 

1989. Dracula, Prince of Many Faces: 

His Life and His Times. Boston: Little | 

Brown. 
. 1973. Dracula: A Biography of 

Vlad the Impaler. New York: 

Hawthorn Books. 
Giurescu, Constantin C. 1969. The Life 

and Deeds of Vlad the Impaler: 

Draculea. New York: Romanian 

Library. 
McNally, Raymond T., and Radu Florescu. 

1994. In Search of Dracula. Boston: 

Houghton Mifflin Co. 
Roth, Phyllis A. 1982. Bram Stoker. 

Boston: Twayne. 
Stoicescu, Nicolae. 1978. Vlad the 

Impaler. Translated by Cristina 

Kriorian. Bucharest: Romanian 

Academy. 

Radu R. Florescu is professor emeritus of his- 
tory and director of the East European 
Research Center at Boston College and hon- 
orary consul of Romania. He holds degrees 
from 0.xford and Indiana Universities and 
has published widely on Romanian history 
and Dracula. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



South Africa: 

CraMng Hk EcMMric RcnissaMt ofthc RaiilNW MaliM 




This program is produced with the collaboration and support 
of the South African Department of Arts, Culture, Science and 
Technology and the National Arts Council Other contributors 
include the Department of Trade and Industry, Department of 
Foreign Affairs, Department of Sport and Recreation, Buy- 
Afrika, African Art Centre, and Skukuza Alliance. Special appre- 
ciation to Metro Travel and corporate sponsors, KWV and the 
Royal Hotel, Durban. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



57 



South Africa al the Festival: 
The Historicai Context 



I 



Janes Early 



For most of this century, the mere 
mention of South Africa has evoked 
images of immeasurable racist in- 
humanity in the minds of people across 
the globe. Yet the country has also repre- 
sented a gloriously just struggle fueled 
by democratic aspirations for high human 
achievement. It was to this struggle that 
curators Bernice Johnson Reagon, Rosie 
Hooks, and I dedicated the three-month 
African Diaspora program at the Bicen- 
tennial Smithsonian Folklife Festival. 
Every morning at eleven o'clock, from 
June through August 1976, elders from 
African diaspora communities in the 
Americas and Africa paraded on the 
National Mall just below the monument 
to the nation's first president, George 
Washington, to pour a libation, invoking 
the spirits of the ancestors and acknow- 
ledging the aspirations of millions of 
South Africans to freely express their 
humanity and cuhural ways of knowing 
and doing. A few weeks into the Festival, 
on June 16, the Soweto Uprising occurred 
against the forced use of Afrikaans as 
the language of educational instruction. 
Twenty-five children were killed by 
police. 

In the 1980s, while the administration 
of the Smithsonian debated the Institu- 
tion's corporate investment policy in 
apartheid South Africa, concern with the 
nexus of culture, democracy, and eco- 
nomic sustainability — today common 
in government bodies, U.S. foundations, 
the World Bank, and the United Nations 
Educational and Scientific Organization 
— was evolving in the work of many 

58 




Smithsonian staff and Festival programs. 
In 1988 the Smithsonian Office of Folk- 
life Programs — now the Center for 
Folklife and Cultural Heritage — and 
the Department of Anthropology of the 
National Museum of Natural History 
organized a symposium with The Smith- 
sonian Associates, "South Africa Today: 
Life in a Divided Society." South African 
historians, biographers, and writers 



from all racial backgrounds were invited 
to the Smithsonian to discuss how the 
rigid system of racial separation impact- 
ed the lives of the majority populations. 
And in 1994, when the South African 
liberation movement emerged victori- 
ous, the South African Ministry of 
Culture's Department of Arts, Culture, 
Science and Technology and the Smith- 
sonian initiated discussions and plan- 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



South Africa's monumental achievement came through 
oRen bloody battles and life-defining sacrifices, especially 
among rural and urban grassroots communities, who 
used their cultural traditions to resist oppression and to 
affirm their identities. 



educational and capacity-building activ- 
ities designed to enhance professional 
development through collegial exchange. 

South Africa: Crafting the Economic 
Renaissance of the Rainbow Nation fea- 
tures nearly 100 South African grass- 
roots community artisans and cultural 
officials. Of course, their presence on the 
National Mall of the U.S. capital is linked 
in direct ways to the country's recent 
past. South Africa's monumental achieve- 
ment came through often bloody battles 
and life-defining sacrifices, especially 
among rural and urban grassroots com- 
munities, who used their cultural tradi- 
tions to resist oppression and to affirm 
their identities. This fact was not lost on 
the country's future leaders, many of 
whom participated themselves in cultur- 
al acts of resistance and affirmation. 
However, the significance of their pres- 
ence is also bound up with the newly 
democratized nations use of its cultural 
heritage to craft its immediate future. 
The South Africa Festival program 
addresses the role of handicraft and 
statecraft in the formulation of a new 
South African national identity, econo- 
my, and political democracy 

As South African communities discov- 
er and rediscover the value of their her- 
itage, they proclaim their numerous, var- 
ied, and distinctive cultural traditions: 
languages, religions, healing practices, 
modes of democratic representation and 
participation, musical styles, recreation- 
al games, regional cuisines, and uses of 
available natural resources. The artisans, 
cultural communities, and public ser- 




Ndebele bead work. Photo by Paola Gianturco 

ning for a long-term collaboration on a 
broad range of cultural heritage pro- 
jects, including a Festival program. Since 
1996, in the framework of the South 
Africa-Smithsonian Culture and Com- 
munity-Building Reciprocal Learning 
Program, Smithsonian and South 
African colleagues have participated in 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



vants who are coming together to pre- 
sent, discuss, and debate concepts of 
cultural identity, cultural enterprise, and 
cultural democracy are indeed con- 
sciously engaged in fashioning a collec- 
tive national story 

The apartheid regime emphasized 
individual identity to divide, demean, 
and exploit the country along lines of 
race, color, culture, and economic class. 
This racialized history makes it difficult 
to employ cultural distinctions in the 
formation of a new national identity that 
equitably reflects the diversity of values 
and economic capacities of all citizens. 
Nevertheless, South Africans are forging 
ahead on all fronts to draw upon their 
rich diversity in the transformation from 
the old to the emerging national identity 

No tried-and-true formulas for suc- 
cess exist. Criteria that define a success- 
ful marriage of cultural enterprise and 
cultural tourism are not altogether clear. 
Many ethical issues arise as living cul- 
tural communities enter the marketplace 
seeking remuneration for the sale of 
their cultural products and display of 
their cultural life. 

Individual artisans and cultural com- 
munities are using their traditions to 
start cuhural businesses, cultural cen- 
ters, and museums. Private and govern- 
ment-sponsored cultural tourism is also 
being developed. As the philosophy and 
practice of cultural industries and 
tourism evolves in developing countries 
— and in developing communities in 
developed countries — new, sometimes 
thorny questions arise about authentici- 
ty, integrity, and exploitation. Such is the 
case in South Africa. 

Should, or how should, communities 
benefit from marketing their cultural 
traditions? Should one community con- 
trol the finances and administration of 
cultural enterprises and reap the bulk of 
the profits from the sale of another com- 
munity's living cultural representations? 
Should not the independent decisions of 
cultural communities and individual 

59 



For most of this century, the mere 
mention of South Africa has evoked 
images of immeasurable racist in- 
humanity in the minds of people across 
the globe. Yet the country has also repre- 
sented a gloriously just struggle fueled 
by democratic aspirations for high human 
achievement. It was to this struggle that 
curators Bernice Johnson Reagon, Rosie 
Hooks, and I dedicated the three-month 
African Diaspora program at the Bicen- 
tennial Smithsonian Folklife Festival. 
Every morning at eleven o'clock, from 
June through August 1976, elders from 
African diaspora communities in the 
Americas and Africa paraded on the 
National Mall just below the monument 
to the nation's first president, George 
Washington, to pour a libation, invoking 
the spirits of the ancestors and acknow- 
ledging the aspirations of millions of 
South Africans to freely express their 
humanity and cultural ways of knowing 
and doing. A few weeks into the Festival, 
on June 16, the Soweto Uprising occurred 
against the forced use of Afrikaans as 
the language of educational instruction. 
Twenty-five children were killed by 
police. 

In the 1980s, while the administration 
of the Smithsonian debated the Institu- 
tion's corporate investment policy in 
apartheid South Africa, concern with the 
nexus of culture, democracy, and eco- 
nomic sustainability — today common 
in government bodies, U.S. foundations, 
the World Bank, and the United Nations 
Educational and Scientific Organization 
— was evolving in the work of many 

58 



South Africa atthe Festival: 
Tlie Historical Context 



James Early 



$outh Africa's monumental achievement came throueh 
oRen bloody battles andlift-definingsacriiices, especially 

among rural and urban grassroots communities, who 
ysed their cultural traditions to resist oppression and to 
alTirm their identities. 




Smithsonian staff and Festival programs. 
In 1988 the Smithsonian Office of Folk- 
life Programs — now the Center for 
Folklife and Cultural Heritage — and 
the Department of Anthropology of the 
National Museum of Natural History 
organized a symposium with The Smith- 
sonian Associates, "South Africa Today: 
Life in a Divided Society." South African 
historians, biographers, and writers 



from all racial backgrounds were invited 
to the Smithsonian to discuss how the 
rigid system of racial separation impact- 
ed the lives of the majority populations. 
And in 1994, when the South African 
liberation movement emerged victoi i- 
ous, the South African Ministry of 
Culture's Department of Arts,Cultui , 
Science and Technology and the Sm ^h- 
sonian initiated discussions and pla 
Smithsonian Folklife Festival ^99 



Ndebele bead work. Photo by Paola Gianturco 

ning for a long-term collaboration on a 
broad range of cultural heritage pro- 
jects, including a Festival program. Since 
1996, in the framework of the South 
Africa-Smithsonian Culture and Com- 
munity-Building Reciprocal Learning 
Program, Smithsonian and South 
African colleagues have participated in 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



educational and capacity-building activ- 
ities designed to enhance professional 
development through coUegial exchange. 

South Africa: Crafting the Economic 
Renaissance of the Rainbow Nation fea- 
tures nearly 100 South African grass- 
roots community artisans and cultural 
officials. Of course, their presence on the 
National Mall of the U.S. capital is linked 
in direct ways to the country's recent 
past. South Africa's monumental achieve- 
ment came through often bloody battles 
and life-defining sacrifices, especially 
among rural and urban grassroots com- 
munities, who used their cultural tradi- 
tions to resist oppression and to affirm 
their identities. This fact was not lost on 
the country's future leaders, many of 
whom participated themselves in cultur- 
al acts of resistance and affirmation. 
However, the significance of their pres- 
ence is also bound up with the newly 
democratized nation's use of its cultural 
heritage to craft its immediate future. 
The South Africa Festival program 
addresses the role of handicraft and 
statecraft in the formulation of a new 
South African national identity, econo- 
my, and political democracy. 

As South African communities discov- 
er and rediscover the value of their her- 
itage, they proclaim their numerous, var- 
ied, and distinctive cultural traditions: 
languages, religions, healing practices, 
modes of democratic representation and 
participation, musical styles, recreation- 
al games, regional cuisines, and uses of 
available natural resources. The artisans, 
cultural communities, and public ser- 



vants who are coming together to pre- 
sent, discuss, and debate concepts of 
cultural identity, cultural enterprise, and 
cultural democracy are indeed con- 
sciously engaged in fashioning a collec- 
tive national story. 

The apartheid regime emphasized 
individual identity to divide, demean, 
and exploit the country along lines of 
race, color, culture, and economic class. 
This racialized history makes it difficult 
to employ cultural distinctions in the 
formation of a new national identity that 
equitably reflects the diversity of values 
and economic capacities of all citizens. 
Nevertheless, South Africans are forging 
ahead on all fronts to draw upon their 
rich diversity in the transformation from 
the old to the emerging national identity. 

No tried-and-true formulas for suc- 
cess exist. Criteria that define a success- 
ful marriage of cultural enterprise and 
cultural tourism are not altogether clear. 
Many ethical issues arise as living cul- 
tural communities enter the marketplace 
seeking remuneration for the sale of 
their cultural products and display of 
their cuhural life. 

Individual artisans and cultural com- 
munities are using their traditions to 
start cultural businesses, cuhural cen- 
ters, and museums. Private and govern- 
ment-sponsored cultural tourism is also 
being developed. As the philosophy and 
practice of cultural industries and 
tourism evolves in developing countries 
— and in developing communities in 
developed countries — new, sometimes 
thorny questions arise about authentici- 
ty, integrity, and exploitation. Such is the 
case in South Africa. 

Should, or how should, communities 
benefit from marketing their cultural 
traditions? Should one community con- 
trol the finances and administration of 
cultural enterprises and reap the bulk of 
the profits from the sale of another com- 
munity's living cultural representations? 
Should not the independent decisions of 
cultural communities and individual 

59 



culture bearers be respected as to how 
they use their agency in the marketplace 
— with whom and under what arrange- 
ments — to display or represent their 
culture? What role, if any, should the 
South African government play in foster- 
ing cultural enterprises and tourism that 
achieve acceptable balances between 
national craft export policies, mainte- 
nance of community cultural integrity, 
and sustainable community economic 
development? 

No doubt some people argue that 
commoditlcation of community heritage 
is disrespectful of tradition and 
demeaning of the individuals who might 
choose, because of economic necessity 
or other personal reasons, to perform or 
package tradition for monetary gain. 
Some of the cultural tourism villages 
and craft cooperatives in South Africa, 
capitalized and administered by people 
historically privileged with access to 
education, funds, and administrative 
skills, are artificial and disturbing ven- 
tures in which whole families live on site 
and open their homes to droves of 
tourists bused in to see "authentic" eth- 
nic community or township life. A con- 
trasting model of control of cultural pro- 
duction, marketing, sales, and conse- 
quent creation of jobs, however, can be 
found among some traditional cultural 
communities in which women are the 
sole craft producers and entrepreneurs. 

The implications of crafting the eco- 
nomic renaissance of the Rainbow 
Nation are clear to South African cultur- 
al communities and their representa- 
tives. They involve nothing less than 
issues of cultural education and respect, 
political participation, and economic 
advancement for the whole country 
Craftspeople, as citizens and knowledge 
keepers, have become central to the 
work of provincial and national govern- 
ments, educators, trade and tourism 
industries, museums, art galleries, cor- 
porate supporters of the arts, and, of 
course, their own entrepreneurial pro- 

60 



jects. Integration of traditional knowl- 
edge and technology into national devel- 
opment is underway Extensive research, 
public forums, cultural policy papers, 
and constitutional laws have been devel- 
oped to guide and assess the South 
African national cultural project. 

Through its struggle with tensions 
between principles of individual and 
group rights, monolingualism and mul- 
tihngualism, rural-urban inequities, and 
the intrinsic local value of cuUure and 
its use to pursue wider goals, South 
Africa may once again capture the 
world's imagination and advance the 
understanding and practice of cultural 
democracy as a key to national econom- 
ic development. 

The cultural work going on in all sec- 
tors of South Africa indicates rather con- 
vincingly that crafting the economic 
renaissance of the Rainbow Nation will 
not be forestalled by challenging ques- 
tions or abstract moral concerns. As in 
the freedom struggle against apartheid, 
answers are to be found in the process of 
conscious national transformation. 

The Center for Folklife and Cultural 
Heritage dedicates this program to the 
memory of two South African cultural 
workers who lived exemplary lives of com- 
mitment to grassroots community culture 
and democracy. Lazarus Mphahlele, an 
accomplished singer and performer, and 
Paulos Msimanga, noted for nurturing 
young musicians in community tradi- 
tions, participated in the 1997 Festival 
program Sacred Sounds: Belief and 
Society. Both died shortly afterwards. 

Lazarus was deputy director of Culture 
in Pietersburg, Northern Province, and 
former leader of the African National 
Congress cultural ensemble Amandla. 
Paulos was the public relations officer of 
the South African Traditional Music 
Association. 



Suggested Reading 

Constitutional Assembly, Republic of 
South Africa. 1996. Constitution of 
the Republic of South Africa. 

The Cuhural Strategy Group. 1998. 
"Creative South Africa: A Strategy 
for Realising the Potential of the 
Cultural Industries." A Report to the 
Department of Arts, Culture, Science 
and Technology. Pretoria: The 
Cultural Strategy Group. 

Department of Arts, Culture, Science and 
Technology. 1997. "Cultural Tourism 
in South Africa: Papers Presented at 
a Conference of Arts, Culture, Science 
and Technology." Pretoria: Depart- 
ment of Arts, Culture, Science and 
Technology. 

."Culture in Community: Arts & < 

Culture RDP Projects." Pretoria: 
Department of Arts, Culture, Science i 
and Technology. 

. 1996."Draft White Paper on 



Arts, Culture, and Heritage: All Our 
Legacies, All Our Futures." Pretoria: 
Department of Arts, Culture, Science i 
and Technology. 

Mbeki, Govan. 1992. The Struggle for 

Liberation in South Africa: A Short I 
History. Cape Town: David Philip » 
Publishers. i 

Ramogale, Marcus, ed. 1996. To Kill A 

Man's Pride and Other Short Stories i 
from South Africa. Johannesburg: 
Ravan Press. 

Serote, Mongane ( Wally). 1997. To Every < 
Birth Its Blood. Athens: Ohio 
University Press. 

Southern African Development Com- 
munity. 1994. "Southern African 
Development Community: A 
Handbook." Gaborone: SADC 
Secretariat. 

James Early is director of cultural heritage 
policy at the Center for Folklife and Cultural 
Heritage, and co-curator of this year's South 
Africa program. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



South Africa: Crafting tlie Economic 
Renaissance of tlie Rainbow Nation 



RupliusMatibe 




Iuch has happened since the first 
democratic elections in 1994 
brought freedom to millions of 
South Africans. Celebrated across the 
land, the elections changed the lives of 
South Africans in political, social, and 
economic spheres. Focus and energy 
previously directed into the struggle for 
liberation are now channeled into social 
and economic action. The elections have 
brought a particular kind of freedom to 
artists and craftspeople. No longer 
engaged in the fight for freedom, artists 
and crafters now have the time and 
resources to concentrate on creativity. 

At the close of the 20th century. South 
Africa is witnessing a renaissance ot 
some of the world's oldest living art and 
craft traditions. Indigenous artists and 
crafters from all nine provinces are 
drawing from their heritage to express 
contemporary realities. They are bring- 
ing their culture onto the international 
stage. Crafters' innovative use of found 
objects and recycled material is a testi- 
mony to this change of focus, the most 
visible recent development in South 
African craft. There is a strong nucleus 
of this kind of work in the program we 
bring to the Festival. 

A wide range of genres, from painting 
and murals to ephemeral art, is covered 
in this program. We intend to present 
South Africa as a world in one new coun- 
try, a new country in the world, vibrant 
and colorful, with cultural diversity and 
artistic expression from diverse inspira- 
tions — our history, our geography, our 
languages, and our ethnic groups. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




An Ndebele woman passing on a traditional art form to the luxt generation. Plioto i 



I OUR 



Talk about democracy, talk about the 
struggle for liberation and the unshack- 
ling of the mind, talk about creativity — 
and you are talking about the people 
who "crafted" South Africa, the mothers 
and fathers who kept creative fires burn- 
ing during the fierce days of apartheid. 
South African crafters, especially 
women, have been and still are the back- 
bone of families whose young men were 
recruited to work in diamond and gold 
mines or in other industries tar from 
home. Through their hard work and cre- 
ativity, through sales of their crafts, 
these artists have lifted rural and, to a 
certain extent, urban standards ot living. 

The visitor moving through this 
Festival will be walking along the path 
traveled by millions of South Africans in 
search of social, economic, and political 
comfort. This road will take you from 



traditional and decorative murals of 
rural Venda to contemporary murals 
influenced by the struggle for liberation 
and found on walls and bridges in 
Soweto; from grass woven baskets of 
KwaZulu-Natal to wares made in 
Gauteng from telephone wire; from tra- 
ditional beaded Xhosa cloth to hand- 
printed banners and T-shirts bearing 
the logos of political parties. We hope 
this exhibition widens your appreciation 
of the quality and variety of South 
African art and craft, while it accurately 
reflects the diversity of experience of the 
country's communities. 

We have given care to try to create an 
atmosphere similar to the one in which 
most of the crafters work. The sound of 
the chisel chipping through wood or 
stone, the humming noise in the she- 
been or tavern, the shouts of joy from 

61 



children playing their favorite games are 
a true reflection of these artists' and 
crafters' daily lives. The beat of the 
drum, too, is a natural sound in our 
communities. 

Music forms an integral part of South 
African life. We sing when celebrating 
and when mourning, we sing when 
working and when playing. We sing 



when we're happy, when we're sad, and 
when we toyi-toyi — a dance we use to 
express solidarit)', especially during 
mass demonstrations. Traditionally, 
fighters in Venda have demonstrated 
their dedication by singing. In the early 
days, they sang praises to the chief; in 
the struggle years, they sang freedom 
songs; now they sing their demands for 




The sound of the chisel on wood is the crafter's daily companion. Photo courtesy CCIS 

62 



houses and other necessities. The tunes 
have not changed — only the words are 
different. It is a quintessentially South 
African practice. 

One reason this program is so richly 
diverse is that crafters are true to their 
own and their communities' commen- 
taries on reality. No one is demanding a 
single style that craft dealers think will 
sell quickly. The imperatives of the mar- 
ketplace do not often penetrate the rural 
areas. There, tradition rules, and the 
ancestors are honored. 

South Africa: Crafting the Economic 
Renaissance of the Rainbow Nation is a 
program intended to serve as a window 
into the past and future of South Africa's 
traditional crafters and their crafts. We 
have attempted to maintain a clear dis- 
tinction between a cultural trade fair and 
a folklife festival. We have tried to pro- 
vide a forum for tradition bearers them- 
selves to communicate their aesthetic 
and humanistic traditions, their religious 
perspectives, and their social values with 
a wider public through song, dance, 
cooking, architecture, games, and stories 
as well as through their visual art. 

The focus here is on the people and 
their way of life — communities craft- 
ing a new South African identity 
through participation in national eco- 
nomic life and democratic development. 
(Communities are the focal point for 
understanding how skills are passed on 
from one generation to the next, how 
geography and natural resources influ- 
ence craft development, and how people 
can work together to achieve a common 
purpose. 

Ruphus Matibe is co-curator of the South 
Africa program and a staff member with the 
South African Department of Arts, Cuhure, 
Science and Technology. He has curated 
<everal art exhibitions in South Africa and 
abroad. Mr Matibe holds a master of arts 
degree in media and cuhural poUcy. He is the 
son of one of South Africa's most renowned 
potters. 

S.MITHSONIAN FOLKLIFE FeSTIV.M 1999 



Musical Instruments 
orsouth Africa 



Andrew Traccy 



The greatest of all musical instru- 
ments on the African continent is 
the voice. This is especially true in 
South Africa, which has strong choral 
traditions but, compared with most 
African countries, relatively few indige- 
nous instruments. We have many kinds 
of musical bows, several drums, some 
reedpipes, and one xylophone. How is 
this selection to be explained? 

The answer can be found in cultural 
history and ecology The majority of 
South Africans are descendants of cattle- 
keeping Nguni and Sotho peoples. These 
semi-nomadic pastoralists traditionally 
lived on open, grassy plains and orga- 
nized themselves in large-scale societies 
with powerful chiefs. Their principal 
forms of public musical performance 
were singing and dancing in large groups. 
In other parts of Africa also, cattie keep- 
ers prefer singing to instrument-playing. 

African farmers, on the other hand, 
play more instruments. In South Africa 
these farmers are the northern peoples, 
the Venda, the Tsonga, and the Pedi. 

The kinds of plants that grow in a par- 
ticular ecology also determine the 
instruments that are played, because 
people usually make instruments out of 
local materials. People who live in or 
near forests use large trees to make 
drums and xylophones; people who live 
in biishveld, the grassy plains in most of 
South Africa, make smaller instruments 
that use sticks, reeds, and gourds. 

To grasp the variety of musical instru- 
ments, scholars classify them into four 
families, according to how they vibrate 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




A musician plays the pan flute at a flea market in 
Johannesburg. Photo courtesy SA TOUR 

to produce their sound. All four are rep- 
resented in South Africa: chordophones 
(in which strings vibrate), membra- 
nophones (in which a skin or other 
membrane vibrates), aerophones (in 
which a column of air vibrates), and 
idiophones (in which the body of the 
instrument itself vibrates). 

Although musical bows (chordophones) 
are played by few people these days, they 
once had a big part in music here; the 
scales used in most traditional South 
African songs come from bow- playing. 
Historians believe that many of our musi- 



cal bows came from the Khoi people, the 
original inhabitants of South Africa. 

A musical bow is a string instrument 
made of a long wooden stick, with one 
string, usually of metal, stretched from 
end to end. To play some bows, a player 
strikes the string with a piece of grass or 
a small stick. In other traditions, the 
player rubs or "bows" it with a straight 
stick or with another small bow made of 
hair from a cow or horse tail. In still 
other places, one plays with one's fin- 
gers, or with a small pick made of a 
thorn or a piece of wood. Sometimes one 
makes the instrument sound by scrap- 
ing the notches cut in the bow with a 
rattle-stick. One bow is even blown with 
the mouth — the lesiba, an original 
Khoi instrument that is still played 
among the Sotho people. 

Although there are differences 
between the many kinds of bows, all 
have a resonator and at least two funda- 
mental notes. The resonator is a hollow 
gourd or tin that amplifies the sound of 
the bow's vibrating string. If the player 
holds the bow against his or her mouth, 
the mouth itself becomes the resonator. 
Fundamental notes are the deepest notes 
which the string gives, as against the 
higher notes, the harmonics, which you 
can hear coming from the resonator. 
There are at least two fundamental 
notes, although some bows give three or 
more. The Zulu umakhweyana and the 
Tsonga xitcndc give three. The Venda 
tshihwana gives four. 

One note comes from the string when 
it is open — that is, when the player 

63 



4 



does not finger it or shorten it. Xhosa 
call this note VU, from the word vuliwe 
(open). The other, higher note comes 
from the string when a player fingers or 
shortens it in some way. Xhosa call this 
BA, from banjiwe (held). The interval 
between VU and BA is often a whole 
tone, but in Zulu tradition it is a semi- 
tone and in Tsonga, a minor third. 

Drums (membranophones) are 
important instruments among the 
northern peoples of South Africa. Venda 
call them murumba and ngoma\ among 
Tsonga they are rigoimr, and among Pedi, 
they are nieropa. Drums are royal instru- 
ments among Venda; they are symbols of 
royal authority Traditional drums are 
made of wood with a skin on one or 
both ends. Each drummer in a group 
plays a different but related rhythm to 
create polyrhythmic music. 

Zulus and Swazis also play many 
drums these days. They first borrowed 
their design in the late 1800s from the 
drums of British army bands. These 
modern instruments, as well as those 
used by Zionist Christian churches, are 
usually made of metal oil drums with a 
skin laced on at both ends. Even when 
there are many, they are all played 
together in the same powerful unison 
rhythm. 

Reedpipes (aerophones) are often 
played by large groups of people on 
important social occasions. Each reed- 
pipe is a simple instrument made of a 
single river reed cut to the right length 
to sound a particular note on the scale. 
But reedpipes are played together coop- 
eratively in a very complex way. Each 
man inserts his one note into the music 
at exactly the right time, while dancing 
simultaneously to rhythms provided by 
a women's drum ensemble that performs 
at the center of a circle of dancing men. 
Best known are the reedpipes of the 
northern peoples, the Venda tshikona 
(which is also the Venda national dance) 
and the Pedi dinaka, as well as the 
Tswana/Bamalete letlhaka in Botswana. 

64 



Once boys who herded livestock played 
reed flutes, but only rarely now. These 
instruments have finger holes like a penny 
whistle, but are blown on the side, not at 
the end. The Zulu wntshmgo — like the 
Xhosa ixilongo and the Sotho lekolilo — is 
made of reed or pawpaw leaf and is blown 
at the end. The bottom end is the only fin- 
ger hole, and it creates harmonics, like the 
musical bows. During dances, northern 
peoples sometimes blow on single kudu 
(sable antelope) horns — called pha- 
laphala in Venda, phalafala in Pedi, and 
xipalapala in Tsonga. 

The northern peoples are traditionally 
the only ones in South Africa who play 
the mbira or thumb piano (an idio- 
phone), a small instrument with a 
wooden body and 10 to 22 or more 
tuned iron keys fixed to it. A player 
plucks the keys with the thumbs or fin- 
gers. These mhiras are played unaccom- 
panied for the player's enjoyment or to 
accompany topical and personal songs. 

There was only one traditional xylo- 
phone in South Africa, the Venda mbila 
imitoudo, a beautiful, large instrument 
with carved wooden keys and gourd res- 
onators underneath, played with rubber- 
tipped sticks. Unfortunately, it is no 
longer played. The modern Afro-marim- 
ba from Zimbabwe, made in four differ- 
ent sizes and played in groups, has 
become very popular in the cities since 
1980, especially among Xhosa speakers. 

Andrew Tracey is director of the International 
Library of African Music at Rhodes Univer- 
sity, Grahamstown, the archive and institute 
for tlie study of traditional African music 
founded by his father, Hugh Tracey, in 1954. 
Hugh spent his life documenting African 
nnisic; Andrew has spent his studying instru- 
mental playing in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, 
and elsewhere, which now forms part of the 
degree course for prospective ethnomusicologi- 
cal researchers offered at Rhodes University. 
He has lectured widely, appeared on televi- 
sion, and has perhaps been even better known 
over the last 30 years for his steel band. 



Suggested Reading 

Blacking, John. 1965. Venda Children's 

Songs. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand 

University Press. 
Coplan, David. 1985. /« Township Tonight! 

South Africa's Black City Music and 

Theatre. Johannesburg: Longman. 
Dargie, David. 1988. Xhosa Music: Its 

Techniques and Instruments, with a 

Collection of Songs. Cape Town: 

David Philip Publishers. 
Kirby, P.R. 1968. The Musical Instruments 

of the Native Races of South Africa. 

Johannesburg: Witwatersrand 

University Press. 
Malan, J.P., ed. 1982. "Indigenous music." 

In South African Music Encyclopedia. 

Vol. 2, pp. 265-508. Cape Town: 

Oxford University Press. 
Rycroft, David. 1981. "The Musical Bow in 

Southern Africa." 2nd Symposium on 

Ethnomusicology, pp. 70-76. 
Wells, Robin. 1994. An Introduction to the 

Music of the Basotho. Morija, 

Lesotho: Morija Museum and 

Archives. 

Suggested Listening 

African Music Society Awards 2. Music of * 

Africa 15. 
African Music Society Awards 3. Music of 

Africa 16. 
Dances of the Witwatersrand Gold Mines. 

Music of Africa 12, 13. 
Songs from the Roadside — South Africa. 

Music of Africa 18. 
Songs from the Roadside — Zimbabwe. 

Music of Africa 19. 
The Zulu Songs of Princess Magogo. Music 

of Africa 37. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



TheRileiftheCrafter 
inDmlopnenl 



Evelyn Senna 




Craftspeople, or crafters, play an 
important role in all six areas ot 
the South African government's 
Reconstruction and Development 
Program: education and training; arts 
and culture; youth development; build- 
ing the economy; the environment; and 
industry, trade, and commerce. "Cratt 
is important," says Kushu Dlamini ot 
KwaZulu-Natal, a potter and bead- 
worker, "because craft is a way ot lite. It 
is part of the culture of the people, 
what people rely on to earn a living." 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



In recent years entrepreneurship, espe- 
cially in small-sized enterprises, has 
become a dominant theme in develop- 
ment economics. This sector is seen as 
essential for growth, job creation, and 
social progress. Those with entrepre- 
neurial talents should not only survive, 
but prosper. 

This emphasis in policy is ideal for a 
craft industry composed of small, flexi- 
ble enterprises that adapt easily to 
changing market opportunities. Grafts 
require relatively little capital, can com- 



Small-sized enterprises such as this brass factory 
have become a dominant factor in development 
economies. Photo coiirlesy SATOUR 

bine simple and advanced technology as 
appropriate, and, being generally labor- 
intensive, contribute significantly to job 
creation. 

There is a major need for craft aware- 
ness programs to show that creating 
crafts can actually be a lucrative busi- 
ness. In the words of Dave Innes at the 
First National Bank (FNB) Vita Regional 

65 



Craft Now Exhibition in North West 
Province in 1997, "South Africa's unique 
and excellent craftsmanship stands out 
in a world where production-line medi- 
ocrhy has become acceptable. To avoid 
the melting pot syndrome, we must pro- 
tect and acknowledge every single entity 
of our country's heritage." 
Tourists are no longer looking for 



galleries to showcase the best of the 
province," says Steven Modise, a 
Northern Cape textile designer and 
printer, "and to facilitate craft develop- 
ment through teaching." 

"When we attend workshops," says 
Louis Thabo Muir, a woodcarver and 
potter in the North West Province, "we 
want to be awarded with certificates 



A craftsperson puts 

the finishing touches 

on a doll. Job creation 

is a major component 

of the South African 

crafts industry. 

Photo courtay GCIS 



ethnic craft per se but are seeking well- 
made and original crafts; as a resuh, 
there is a need for training in product 
development, in creating objects that can 
be marketed all over the world. The craft 
industry's major concerns are lacks in 
financial assistance, public exposure, 
export opportunities, and organizational 
infrastructure. 

Grafters need to develop the skills to 
coordinate their own exhibitions, to 
have their works exhibited to the local 
public, and to promote an interest in 
and appreciation for craft on all levels in 
all regions. Workshops are needed in 
rural or other underprivileged areas to 
develop skills in basic business manage- 
ment, accounting, craft marketing, sus- 
tainabihty, quality control, retail sales, 
and running permanent provincial craft 
galleries. 

"We need permanent provincial 

66 




that empower us to teach others." 

There is also a need for a craft maga- 
zine or journal that can help the indus- 
try, giving crafters exposure, putting 
them in touch with one another, and 
creating a network among people in the 
craft industry. And there is an ever- 
increasing demand for a single, detailed, 
and continuously updated database of 
crafters. 

To address these and other needs, 
the Craft Development Project Trust 
has entered into partnership with the 
National Crafts Council of South Africa 
(the former Craft Action Body) with 
the following goals in mind: 

• increasing opportunities for crafts- 
people to participate equitably in 
arts- and culture-related industries; 

• adding levels of self-investigation, 
creative conceptualization, and com- 
munication for crafters through their 



teaching of others, while opening up ' 
career paths and additional income- 
generating activities for them; 

• enabling partnerships between 
schoolteachers and crafters in order 
to enrich the experience and skills of 
teachers by introducing them to cul- 
tural activities; 

• stimulating the creative and cuhural 
development of in-school learners 
through crafts; focusing and devel- 
oping the creative energy and poten- 
tial income-generating skills of 
youngsters through crafts; and devel- 
oping teachers' confidence and 
enthusiasm as they develop their 
own skills; 

• encouraging the use of museums 
and galleries as educational 
resources; 

• harnessing the capabilities and 
resources of professional craftspeo- 
ple for the purposes of promoting 
arts and culture education and train- 
ing in all areas of learning. 

Through advocacy, education, and train- 
ing, we are investing in the future devel- 
opment and support of the arts. 

Suggested Reading 

Meyer, L. 1 994. Art and Craft in Africa: j 

Everyday Life, Ritual, Court Art. j 

Paris: Pierre Terrail. ^ 

The journal Craft News, published by the 

National Craft Council of South j 

Africa, Craft Action Body since 1997, , 

contains many articles of interest. , 

J 

Evelyn Carrass Senna is chairperson of the ■ 

National Crafts Council of South Africa, a i 
fine arts lecturer at the University of the , 

North West, crafts panelist member of the 
National Arts Council and managing direc- 
tor ofNgeba Crafts. She is also provincial 
chairperson of the Craft Action Body in North , 
West Province and interim chairperson of the 
province's Arts and Culture Council. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Shebeens 



VusiMona 



Before South Africa's turbulent, polit- 
ical 1980s, shebeens were the main- 
stay of Black social life — very 
much as pubs are social centers in the 
United Kingdom — and legion in 
almost every African township. 

However, due to an exodus of Blacks 
with disposable income to previously 
White suburbs, shebeens in South 
Africa's townships are presently under 
financial threat. Shebeen owners in the 
townships must attract their clientele 
from among a market that either has no 
money to spend on liquor or prefers to 
spend money at upscale venues in town. 
The aspiring masses, left behind by the 
new Black elite, also want to escape the 
township squalor and tiny, four-room 
"matchbox" houses and have a taste of 
the finer things in life. And if those finer 
things are associated with town, that's 
where they'll spend their money. 

Yet in spite of the overall decline in 
shebeen business, one still finds some 
places in townships throughout the 
country doing a roaring trade. Take, 
for example, Wandie's Place in Dube, 
Soweto, South Africa's most populous 
Black township. The owner, Wandile 
Ndala, says he knows that some of his 
friends in the shebeen business are not 
doing well, but he hasn't experienced the 
problem of shrinking patronage. In fact, 
his shebeen attracts an assortment of 
customers: foreign tourists (representing 
70 percent of his clientele); a number of 
upwardly mobile Blacks who are tired of 
living "incommunicado" in self-imposed 
suburban exile, holed up in a fancy 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




i 




townhouse or mansion behind vast 
white walls; and trendy White South 
Africans who are keen to see the other 
(Black) side of South African life. 

What's his secret? "I welcome guests as 
friends," he says. "More than that, I think 
it's my personal touch." Ndala's place — 
a four-room house extended into a spa- 
cious L-shaped hall — is a sophisticated 
and friendly little joint indeed. His is a 
shebeen where one can discover heavenly 
entertainment and remedial potions for 
flagging spirits caused by suburbia's dull 
existence and lack of proper diversions. 

Ndala's priorities, he says, are good 
company, good atmosphere, and good 
food, every day And this is very much in 
keeping with the tradition of shebeens. 
For shebeens were always an oasis where 
laborers and artisans rubbed elbows 
with lawyers and musicians, engaging in 
conversations that ranged around all 



Usually set up in a small township house, a 
shebeen was literally a home away from home. 

Plwtocourtciy DACST 

subjects, from soccer and music to poli- 
tics and philosophy. Traditionally set up 
in a small township house, a shebeen 
was literally a home away from home: 
patrons relaxed in the living room or in 
the concrete yard in the back — a space 
shared by several other tiny matchbox 
houses. Drinks — and sometimes food 
— were served from the kitchen. 

Shebeens met the need for social 
centers brought about by mushrooming 
urban African settlements. They started 
as places where people could stop for a 
drink, a chat, a date, or beautiful music. 

In the poorer areas, these drinking 
houses gave birth to marabi, a precursor 
of modern South African jazz. In the 
1930s and 1940s, shebeen proprietors in 

67 



poor areas would sometimes hire musi- 
cians — normally an accordionist and a 
singer — to attract customers. The 
musicians would perform until dawn. 
In more affluent areas, clubs had access 
to electricity, and jazz recordings were 
played. By the 1950s, future stars like 
Dolly Radebe and Miriam Makeba occa- 
sionally performed at top-of-the-line 
shebeens. But for the most part, patrons 



sole support of their families, the 
women (called shebeen queens) who ran 
these informal drinking holes had few 
other commercial options. They could 
work as domestic servants, for example. 
They could try peddling pastries, sweets, 
and other small items — or they could 
run illegal drinking houses. Many she- 
been queens showed an astute business 
sense, and we can only imagine what 



In a country that restricted the entry of Black men 
and women into most businesses, shebeens 
became a good way to malte a living.... 



who wanted to hear live jazz — until the 
mid-1950s, dominated by big bands — 
went to performances in community 
halls. 

Ironically, shebeens also owe their 
existence to a myriad of liquor laws 
enacted by the erstwhile National Party 
government. There was a time in South 
Africa when the government would not 
allow Blacks to consume alcohol unless 
they had a permit and could prove they 
had passed Standard 8 (10th grade). 
Those who were lucky enough were enti- 
tled to buy — only from a White man, of 
course — six bottles of beer and one 
bottle of more refined firewater (brandy 
or whisky) per month. 

However, "township mamas," unde- 
terred by liquor control laws, simply 
brewed and sold their own concoctions, 
turning their homes into social rendez- 
vous. In a country that restricted the 
entry of Black men and women into 
most businesses, shebeens became a 
good way to make a living — as long as 
you didn't mind turning your living 
room into a pub and your kitchen into a 
home-brew storeroom. 

It was worth the sacrifice. Generations 
of Black South African professionals, 
including some current politicians, were 
educated on the proceeds of their moth- 
ers' shebeens. Often unskilled and the 

68 



they might have achieved if the world of 
legitimate commerce had been open to 
them. 

Never at a loss for repressive laws, the 
National Party government set up its 
own sorghum-brewing concerns and 
beer halls and made it illegal for Blacks 
to brew and sell their own. But a deter- 
mined people always finds a way of 
defying an unjust law. The government 
finally gave up, and in 1984 officially rec- 
ognized shebeens. Liquor licenses were 
issued; legal shebeens became known as 
taverns. Activist youths — who saw 
drinking and revelry as an obstacle to 
the discipline required by the liberation 
struggle — had meanwhile been trying 
to close shebeens down, and sadly they 
had some successes. But hundreds — 
licensed and unlicensed — continued to 
operate, and in the 1990s, the institution 
scored a comeback. 

Althouah one can find hard-core she- 
beens in almost every African township, 
the ones with class and sophistication 
— at the risk of sounding condescend- 
ing — are found in townships in the 
environs of big cities like Johannesburg, 
Durban, and Cape Town. Take, for exam- 
ple, Steers in Section N of Umlazi, near 
Durban. Steers boasts a TV set with M- 
Net (the pay-television channel), a big 
screen for sports viewing, excellent toilet 



facilities, parking, and security. Although 
the people who patronize it are some- 
what full of themselves, it nevertheless 
casts the image of shebeens in a good 
light. 

There has also been a move to open 
shebeens in the suburbs. Mama's Jazz 
Joint was the best known of these, oper- 
ating in Dunkeld West in Johannesburg 
and filling the gap for elite Blacks who 
had moved to the suburbs. Its owner, 
Charmain Modjadji, has recently suc- 
cumbed to pressure and closed the tav- 
ern after complaints by her neighbors, 
who were afraid it would drive their 
property values down. People who 
patronized her abode were socially pol- 
ished and sophisticated, and drunken 
brawls never occurred at Mama's. 
Modjadji argues that the complaints 
were indicative of how Blacks have to "fit 
into" White culture in order to be accept- 
ed in the suburbs. Still convinced that 
shebeens in town are a good idea, she's 
in the process of setting up another one 
in Midrand, a burgeoning city midway 
between Johannesburg and Pretoria. 

Major food and restaurant franchisers 
are taking their cue from shebeens — 
the sports taverns they are opening 
throughout the country are modeled on 
these traditional drinking spots. One can 
even find a venue called the Travellers 
Shebeen & Bar at the Johannesburg 
International Airport. 

For a taste of the glory and magic of 
the original shebeen, however, one must 
go back to the township. Here shebeens 
may no longer be doing the roaring 
trade they used to, and they may contin- 
ue to undergo changes in form and style. 
But they will undoubtedly be passed on 
as custom and tradition from one gener- 
ation of the Black community to the 
next. 

Vusi Moiia is assistant editor o/City Press, a 
nuiss-market national Sunday newspaper. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



CraRs and the 
Spatial Development Initiatives 



Eddie Koch 



Two years ago, visitors faced a major 
hazard on their way to the Numbi 
Gate entrance of Kruger National 
Park, the country's most famous game 
reserve. Young boys who spent their time 
carving birds, giraffes, and elephants 
from local hardwoods were so desperate 
to sell their crafts that they would some- 
times lie down in the middle of the road, 
forcing tourists to stop and inspect their 
goods. That situation has now changed 
to the benefit of all parties, thanks to the 
work of an enterprising organization 
called the Skukuza Alliance, which is 
headed by craftsman and sculptor 
Philemon Ngomane. 

In 1997, Ngomane and his assistant, 
Harry Johnson — an artist brought in by 
the Kruger National Park management to 
help stimulate quality craft manufactur- 
ing in the surrounding villages — real- 
ized that the only way to improve the 
quality of the craftspeople's products, 
and hence their lives, was to improve the 
organization of their production systems. 

"In those days our members were not 
cooperating with each other," says 
Ngomane. "You would find one guy cut- 
ting the trees, carving the sculptures, 
and [also] trying to stop the cars to buy 
his artworks. In the end, he did nothing 
well, and the tourists did not want to 
buy his goods." 

One of the first things that Ngomane 
and Johnson did was to convince the 
crafters — more than 400 of them in the 
villages around Kruger's Numbi Gate — 
that they needed to unite under the um- 
brella of the Skukuza Alliance and work 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




The recent grouih in tourism in South Africa provides a ready marlcet for the craft industry and 
increased opportunity to create employment, for example for these roadside vendors in Mpumalanga. 

Photo iOiirtfSY SATOUR 



out a more rational division of labor. Says 
Johnson: "It wasn't easy, because crafters 
are traditionally very independent. But we 
managed to show that if some people 
went into the bush to collect wood while 
others concentrated on actually making 
the sculptures, and another group ran a 
shop where the goods are sold, then the 
quality of the product — and the sales — 
would go up. People could simply concen- 
trate on what they do best." 

After a few difficult months, the coop- 
erative system began to yield results, and 
crafters flocked to join the Skukuza 
Alliance. As quality and productivity 
increased, tour buses, which usually 
shied away from the Numbi entrance to 
avoid having their vehicles ambushed by 
crafters, began to use the gate more 



often; their passengers expressed a con- 
sistent desire to buy local crafts. A study 
conducted by the South African Depart- 
ment of Arts, Culture, Science and Tech- 
nology (DACST) found that the Skukuza 
Alliance has achieved the following since 
it began in 1997. It has: 

• encouraged local craft producers to 
cooperate with each other and spe- 
cialize in specific tasks. 

• created average monthly earnings of 
some R330 (approximately $54) for 
about 400 members. This includes 
sales at two oudets along with infor- 
mal distribution outlets established 
by members of the association. 
Although the wage is low, it equals 
the average for this area of the 
country. 

69 



' trained members of the association 
to successfully manage the craft shop 
at Numbi Gate using a simple but 
highly effective monitoring and 
bookkeeping system that allows the 
association to tell how many artifacts 
have been sold by an artist, measure 
the traffic flows through the gate, the 
number of vehicles that stop and 



and for many of them it is the only tbrm of 
employment around here." 

Crafts are one of the few ways that 
rural people without formal skills can 
earn money The average capital cost per 
job created in this sector is far lower 
than in the tourism or manufacturing 
sector, especially in those enterprises 
designed to be competitive internation- 




purchase, the purchasing habits of 
the tourists, etc. 

• encouraged tour buses to use this 
route specifically because of the 
improved quality of the crafts sold 
there — without paying a commis- 
sion to the bus drivers, a practice 
in many other craft outlets. 

• encouraged the management of the 
curio shops inside the game reserve 
to purchase crafts from the local 
associations. This was a major break- 
through, as the management of this 
lucrative outlet had long relied on 
imported crafts and curios, arguing 
that the quality of local crafts was 
too low to be sold in the shop. 

• ensured cooperation between craft 
associations that have a strong histo- 
ry of sectarianism and internal 
fracturing. 

"Our membership now exceeds 400 if you 
include the part-time crafters," says 
Ngomane."Many of these people earn 
more than the average wage in the area, 

70 



Above: Through the 
sale of their handi- 
work, craftspeople 
such as these basket 
sellers in Durban 
(KwaZulu-Natal) have 
been able to raise the 
standard of living in 
rural areas. 

Left: An entrepreneur 
from Postmasburg, 
Northern Cape, fills 
bottles with colored 
sand to sell to tourists. 
Photos courtesy SATOUR 



ally. The recent growth in tourism in 
South Africa provides a ready market for 
the craft industry and an opportunity to 
create employment. Inspired by the 
example of the Skukuza Alliance, DACST 
is looking at ways to improve crafters' 
production and livelihood in many of 
the country's main tourism zones. 




As part of its new macroeconomic 
strategy, the South African government 
has recentiy begun to stimulate new inter- 1 
national tourism destinations in several 
parts of the country Most of these high- 
growth tourism zones are located in areas 
known as spatial development initiatives, 
or SDIs. In these corridors or geographical 
areas, the government is improving trans- 
port, security, and environmental protec- 
tion, and providing other incentives to 
attract investments in hotels, resorts, and 
lodges. The Skukuza Alliance is located 
near the Maputo Development Corridor, 
an SDI that is already ferrying increased 
numbers of tourists into the Kruger 
National Park. Other tourism SDIs are 
located in KwaZulu-Natal province, along 
the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, and 
on the Cape West Coast. 

Based on its recent successes, the 
Skukuza Alliance is currently pressing 
for the right to open an outlet at the far 
busier main entrance to the park at Paul 
Kruger Gate. The alliance's plans include 
a small training center and lodging for 
low-budget travelers. A trust called the 
Mkhabela Foundation is being estab- 
lished to plan expansion of the small 
businesses set up by the alliance. 

Says Ngomane: "If the government can 
give the kind of support we received to 
other crafters around the country, I can 
promise you it will be one of the best 
ways to prevent joblessness among our 
people. And at the same time they will 
make us very proud, because they make 
us artists — not just workers." 

Eddie Koch is a director ofMafisa, a compa- 
ny that speciaUzes in research and planning 
for community involvement in tourism. He is 
a contributing editor to Out There magazine 
and writes regularly for New Scientist maga- 
zine, primarily on issues relating to travel 
and conservation. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Rural Architecture 

Melinda Silverman 



Of all the routes leading north out of 
Johannesburg, the Old Pretoria Road 
used to be one of the most graceful. 
The eucalyptus trees along the route were 
just dense enough to provide shade with- 
out obstructing the views out into the veld 
(grassland). Less than 15 years ago, the 
prettiest of these views was a cluster of 
brightly painted Ndebele homesteads just 
a tew minutes' drive from the city 

Today the Old Pretoria Road is a busy 
commercial strip running through 
Midrand, South Africa's fastest-growing 
"edge city." The eucalyptus trees have 
been cut down, and the Ndebele settle- 
ments have disappeared, replaced by 
cinemas, shopping centers, and office 
parks that accommodate an array of 
multinational, high-tech industries. 

This is known as progress — just one 
of the pressures to which South Africa's 
indigenous architecture is continually 
subject. Yet, miraculously, people contin- 
ue to build in more or less traditional 
ways — they just do it further and fur- 
ther from urban areas, or they manage to 
carve out places in big cities where they 
can practice traditional customs and blur 
the divide between urban and rural. 
Viewed through the eyes of White 
authorities. South Africa's landscape has 
always had a cartoon-like clarity: White, 
urban centers surrounded by Black, 
rural hinterland. Square buildings against 
round ones; concrete against mud; the 
supposedly civilized against the suppos- 
edly naive, natural, and native. This 
anthropological antithesis formed a 
rationale for apartheid — the system 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




An example of traditional architecture by the Basotho people in Clarens, Free State. 

Plwla anirtesv SATOUR 



which tried to confine South Africa's 
Black population in remote rural hinter- 
lands. Africans who defied this stark 
scheme were tolerated in cities only on 
condition of their impermanence, for as 
long as their labor was necessary for the 
White economy When urban Africans 
ceased to be of use, they had to return to 
areas designated as tribal. 

The result was a constant shuttle 
movement of people, commodities, and 
ideas between urban and rural areas 
that persists into the present. Buses and 
taxis ferrying men from the city to the 
countryside are laden with plastic water 
containers and corrugated iron. In turn, 
rural, mud-based architecture has been 
transported to the squatter settlements 
that are springing up in urban areas. 
Traditional beer has found a home in 



township shebeens. And the ritual 
slaughter of goats now takes place on the 
rooftops of high-rise apartments. 

The sharp distinction between European 
architecture and African traditional cul- 
ture had ceased to exist long before a 
polychromatic Rainbow Nation came to 
replace the black-and-white of apartheid. 
Cultural interpenetration proclaims 
itself even in the "traditional" brightly 
painted decorations adorning the walls 
of Ndebele homesteads, which complex- 
ly weave rural with urban and tradition- 
al with new. As Rayda Becker, curator of 
the Gertrude Posel Gallery in Johannes- 
burg, explains: 

When asked why they paint the walls 
of their houses, Ndebele women 
often provide a general explanation 

71 



in terms of ethnic identity: to show 
the outsider that "Ndebele Hve here." 
Then again the designs they paint — 
street lights, double-story houses, 
staircases — are often drawn from 
visits to the city and poignantly 
express personal longings: "I paint 
electric lights on my wall because my 
house does not have lights." (Becker 
1998:83) 

One lesson to be learned from the nowr- 
gone Old Pretoria Road settlement is 
that there has ceased to be — if there 
ever was — a "pure" indigenous archi- 
tecture. Different ethnic groups have 
copied ideas from one another and have 
increasingly incorporated available in- 
dustrial materials. For many years, the 
roof of each building on the Old Pretoria 
Road was made of corrugated iron, held 
in place by stones and tires. Some of the 
windows were standard frames with 
glass. And the paint was commercial 
PVA (acrylic paint). The only completely 
traditional room was the detached 
kitchen, which was carefully thatched in 
the time-honored way because thatch, 
unlike iron sheeting, allows smoke to 
percolate through. 

Ndebele and Sotho builders, whose 
ancestral lands are close to the metropol- 
itan areas of Gauteng, have been strongly 
influenced by what is available in the 
cities. Their homes have become increas- 
ingly rectangular rather than round. As 
Franco Frescura, the country's leading 
scholar on rural architecture, explains: 
"In a society where mass produced fur- 
niture and [architectural] fittings are 
based on the straight line and the 90 
degree angle, the curved wall creates too 
many awkward corners and wasted 
spaces for it to be fully efficient" 
(Frescura 1981:75). Corrugated iron, the 
staple housing material of South Africa's 
poor, is made only in rectangular sheets, 
a shape that encourages straight, right- 
angled walls. The roofing material is eas- 
ily available, easily dismantled, and easily 

72 



transported whenever the owner is oblig- 
ed to move on. These qualities made it 
particularly useful in the era when 
Africans were under constant threat of 
removal by the White state. Corrugated 
iron was a prudent choice — very often 
the iron roofing was the only part of a 
home that could be salvaged and reused 
in a new home in a new location. 



But there are regions of South Africa 
where rural life predominates and where i 
traditional forms of architecture show 
less industrial influence. In the remote 
parts of KwaZulu-Natal, Zulu household- 
ers have been building hemispherical 
grass houses in much the same way for 
the last 200 years. These homes are 
extraordinarily sophisticated examples 





Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Rural Architecture 



of thatching technology, often incorpo- 
rating as many as seven different grass 
types in their construction to ensure 
waterproof interiors even in a region 
notorious for its torrential downpours. 
The late Professor Barry Biermann, head 
of the School of Architecture at Natal 
University, remarked in admiration that 
this thatching represented a technologi- 



country are the white-fronted houses of 
the Xhosa. Each has the same design: 
the door always faces northeast, and its 
surround is always painted with white 
lime. The back of the house is always 
daubed with dark clay The white-paint- 
ed front reflects the hot morning sun- 
shine and keeps the building cool inside. 
The dark back walls slowly absorb the 




Above: Corrugated iron sheets are often used 
for make-do homes in squatter settlements. 

Photocourtesy SATOUR 

Left: Rural, mud-based architecture has been 
transported to the squatter settlements springing 
up in urban areas. Photo courtesy SATOUR 

cal achievement comparable "to that of a 
Boeing 707 jet" (Frescura 1981:12). 

Yet even these structures have been 
threatened by progress. The encroach- 
ment of cities on rural land has resulted 
in overpopulated rural "slums," which 
have stripped their neighborhoods bare 
of most natural resources, including 
thatching grass. As a result, many mod- 
ern examples of Zulu housing now in- 
corporate mud walls and iron roofs. 

Indigenous architecture often reveals a 
climatic sensitivity which modern archi- 
tecture could study with profit. Dotted 
along the southeastern coast of the 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



afternoon sun, retaining its warmth for 
the night, when the temperature falls. 
Equally sensitive to their climatic con- 
text are the Tsonga and Shangaan hous- 
es of Mpumalanga in the subtropical 
northeastern region. Here each house is 
surrounded by a wide verandah, whose 
wooden posts support a conical roof 
This support means that the internal 
walls need not go up to roof level, allow- 
ing the free passage of breezes to cool 
the house. 

But to a passing visitor, perhaps the 
greatest charm of vernacular architec- 
ture is the way it blends so naturally into 
its surroundings. As Frescura points out, 
vernacular architecture is by definition 
shaped by the materials at hand: grass, 
mud, wood, and stone. As a result, the 
dwellings have a sense of belonging in 
the landscape that those alien modern 
materials, concrete and steel, can never 
hope to match. 



And to those who dwell within, "rural 
homes have always been more than 
places of shelter," observes Becker. 
"Significance was bulk into their very 
substance. ... Mud and other materials 
were chosen not just because they were 
available but because they could be inte- 
grated into ritual and social strategies. 
After a man died, for instance, his house, 
which was part of his essence, was 
destroyed . . . . [ B ) uilding systems and 
materials were so flexible that new houses 
could be erected quickly when people 
had to move" (Becker 1998:83). In their 
materials, forms, and construction tech- 
niques, rural dwellings today embody 
centuries of cultural, political, and social 
history. 

Works Cited and Suggested Reading 

Becker, Rayda. 1998. "Headrests and 

Homesteads." In blank 

Architecture, Apartheid and After, 
edited by H. Judin and I. Vladislavic. 
Rotterdam: NAi Publications. 

Frescura, Franco. 1981. Rural Architecture 
in Southern Africa. Johannesburg: 
Ravan. 

. 1998."Pre-Industrial Archi- 
tecture: Historical Patterns of 
Distribution." In Architecture of the 
Transvaal, edited by R.C. Fisher, S. le 
Roux, and E. Mare. Pretoria: 
University of South Africa. 

Oliver, Paul. 1971. Shelter in Africa. 
London: Barrie & Jenkins. 

Walton, James. 1956. African Village. 
Pretoria: Van Schaik. 

Melinda Silverman is an architect and urban 
designer. A lecturer in the history of architec- 
ture at the University of Witwatersrand, she is 
torn between a passion for Johannesburg's 
architectural past and its future urban form. 



73 



Fifth Annual 
Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert 




Ethel Raim and Ralph 

Rinzler at the Newport 

Folk Festival, 1969. 

Photos © Diana Davies 




This concert is supported by the Ruth Mott Foundation 
and The Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds. 



74 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



A Guiding Spirit 

An Interview with 
Ethel Raim and Martin Koenig 



Ralph Rinzler (1934-94), founding 
director of the Smithsonian FoMife 
Festival, worked over the years with 
a host of gifted musicians andfolk- 
lorists, doing fieldwork, issuing 
recordings, and presenting concerts. 
This concert series honors Ralph by 
highlighting his work and the work 
of his colleagues in conserving and 
extending traditional expressive 
culture. 

This year's concert is curated by 
Ethel Raim. 

"T^roiu 1970 to 1974, Ethel Raim and 
r~i Martin Koenig conducted fieldwork 
-A- for the Smithsonian Festival as pro- 
gram directors for Balkan and Slavic cul- 
tures. Their research brought them to 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Illinois, 
and New York, as well as Yugoslavia and 
Greece. For Ethel and Martin, Ralph 
Rinzler's reputation preceded their meet- 
ing him. Raised on Folkways records and 
as music editor of Sing Out! Magazine, 
Ethel had heard about Ralph and his 
work with legendary artists Bill Monroe, 
the Balfa Brothers, and Doc Watson. 
Likewise, over ten years before undertak- 
ing in-depth field research for the 
Smithsonian, Martin remembers attend- 
ing a folk festival at Swarthmore College 
in 1958 where he heard Ralph perform. 

This year's Ralph Rinzler Memorial 
Concert features New York-based immi- 
grant musicians with whom Ethel and 
Martin — and the Center for Traditional 
Music and Dance — have worked in 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




H^^gSte^' 



recent years. This concert led Ethel and 
Martin to reflect on the profound influence 
Ralph had on their lives and their work. 
Ethel Raim: In 1968, Ralph Rinzler 
invited me to the evaluation meeting at 
the Newport Folk Festival. I was raised 
in a Yiddish-speaking home in the 
Bronx, and the music and accents that I 
grew up with weren't represented at the 
festival. I was given $3,000 to bring 
other types of music to Newport and the 
Smithsonian. Back in New York, I hadn't 
the foggiest notion of how 1 would con- 
nect with these artists. So Ralph and I 
did tleld research together. Ralph was 
only two years older than I was, but it 
felt like he was much older. 1 was in awe 
of his experience. He was my mentor. I 
had spent years listening to and tran- 
scribing traditional music, but I didn't 
come with academic training in field 
research techniques. Neither did Ralph, 
but he was steeped in traditional music. 
Ralph gave me space to learn and even 



Festival visitors join pailicipants from Yugoslavia 
in a kolo at the 1973 Festival program Martin 
Koenig and Ethel Raim co-curated. Martin is in 
the circle at the right. Photo by D. Sutherkmi, 
courtesy Stiiithsoniaii Imtitution 

flop on my face. It was a hands-on expe- 
rience in asking about tradition and 
music in people's lives. 

We started out in lower Manhattan. We 
went into a Galician Spanish shop on 
14th Street and found recordings of 
Antonio Moscera, a Galician bagpiper. 
Tony was a baker on Long Island, and we 
went to visit him. I believe we were the 
first non-Galicians who took any interest 
in him, his music, and his community He 
performed at the Smithsonian in 1969. 

We also went to Greek music shops on 
8th Avenue and asked about local musi- 
cians. A man pulled out a newspaper and 
said, "Let's see what's happening this 
weekend." A Pontic Greek celebration was 
taking place at Crystal Palace, in Astoria, 

75 




Ethel Raim and Martin Koenig (on stage) observe 
activities at the Greek program they co-curated 
for the 1974 Festival. 

Photo lOurtesy Smithsonian Institution 

Queens. We walked in and almost walked 
out. Greek Americans playing guitar and 
amplified music. Ralph hated amplified 
music — not that I loved it — but I had 
an instinct to stick around. Sure enough, 
a little later, a single musician got up 
with a three-stringed lyra and started 
playing Pontic music. Everybody was 
dancing. I thought the floor would cave 
in. It was magical. 

After that initial trip to Crystal Palace, 
I learned from Ralph that you need to 
identify a liaison in the community to let 
you know about celebrations — some- 
one who win introduce you and vouch 
for you. These were people inside the 
community but with a certain perspec- 

76 



tive to share with someone on the out- 
side. 

As Ralph's responsibilities and com- 
mitments at the Smithsonian increased, 
his time in the field grew shorter. Ethel 
remembers what it was like to dofiield- 
work without Ralph as a collaborator. 

ER: The questions to ask weren't diffi- 
cult, but it was knowing when to back off 
and when to move forward. Part of re- 
search is bolstering people's self-esteem, 
and Ralph brought out the best in peo- 
ple. He had a way of becoming the people 
he was with. Ralph inspired people to 
look at the root forms of tradition. He 
was genuinely in love with tradition, and 
with people as the carriers and the prac- 
titioners — those lessons are almost 
more important than what questions you 
ask and how you draw out information. 

From 1969 to 1974, Ethel undertook 
fieldwork for the Smithsonian Festival. 



Early on, she invited Martin Koenig to 
join her Having founded the Balkan Arts 
Center in 1966, Martin had spent much of 
the following years documenting music 
and dance hi Bulgaria, Romania, and 
Yugoslavia, but he had returned to the 
United States and was living in Phila- 
delphia, ten minutes away from Ethel. 

ER: In 1970, the order was "Do Ohio — 
all the ethnic traditions of Ohio." It was 
nuts. I called Martin and said, "We are 
featuring the state of Ohio. We can hardly 
do a fraction of the research that has to 
be done, but why don't you join me?" He 
agreed. We took a two-week trip to Ohio, 
and barely slept; those days were long 
and intense. In Cleveland, we came into a 
Serbian hall, and a guy came over imme- 
diately: "What are you doing here? What 
do you know about us?" I thought it was 
the end. This guy was tough. We tried to 
transmute into Ralph. We said, "We are 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



A Guiding Spirit 



here from the National Museum." This 
didn't mean a thing. "What National 
Museum? The Smith-what? What do you 
know about our culture?" Martin said, 
"She sings your songs." The next minute 
the guy has me on stage with the local 
orchestra. I sang" Niska Banja" (a Serbian 
Gypsy song), and the man's jaw dropped. 
Sometimes you had to prove yourself to 
be allowed to ask your questions. 

When field research brought them clos- 
er to D.C., Ethel and Martin invited Ralph 
to come along. 

ER: In 1974 we worked in the Kar- 
pathian Greek community in Baltimore. 
When aglendi (community celebration) 
was going to happen, we'd call Ralph. He 
was always eager to widen his knowl- 
edge of tradition and communities. Yes, 



work work. It was not necessarily the 
most agile singers, not necessarily the 
ones with the fastest fmgers, but those 
who sang and played from the heart. 

For Ethel and Martin, the context of 
Festival programs became increasingly 
important. You couldn't have the perfor- 
mance without the community from 
which it came, says Martin; without one, 
the other didn't work. 

ER: Ralph was extremely receptive to 
our ideas about contextualizing tradi- 
tions. We were learning about traditions 
and documenting repertoire, but also ask- 
ing: how do we translate this to a context 
outside of the community that still pre- 
serves the integrity of the tradition and 
the people involved? For the Greek pro- 
gram, we imported the entire Olympian 



This was music from the hearty and 
Ralph was howled over 

— Martin Koenig 



it was his work. Yes, it was his job, but it 
was his passion, so it came before any- 
thing. If he had dinner plans and some- 
thing came up, he canceled. In Balti- 
more, Ralph saw tradition in a way that 
he had never seen it — a first-genera- 
tion immigrant community: three musi- 
cians sitting on top of a table in a small 
community hall, playing lyra, tsambouna 
(bagpipe), and laouto. 

Martin Koenig: This was music from 
the heart, and Ralph was bowled over. 
Music and dance had a role in the welfare 
of the Karpathian community, and Ralph 
was touched by the community and the 
people who made the music. He didn't 
have to be familiar with the form to 
understand it; Ralph had a great set ot 
ears. Ethel and Ralph and I shared an ori- 
entation that put us in good sync togeth- 
er The same music resonated for us. We'd 
hear a particular instrumentalist, and 
we'd all be moved. That trust made our 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



community from Baltimore to host the 
glendi. The Smithsonian didn't know why 
they needed to bus people down. "Why 
don't you just bring musicians?" Ralph 
supported us and went to bat for us. I am 
sure he took a lot of flak, but he knew it 
would be a coherent program. 

After 1974, Ethel ami Martin's focus 
shifted from the Smithsonian to their own 
work in New York City. The Balkan Arts 
Center was expanding and soon became 
the Ethnic Folk Arts Center Ralph 
remained a close collaborator, however, 
but now it was Ralph who traveled to New 
York as a board member of the center 
Martin's respect for Ralph only grew. 

MK: He was a romantic, but had his feet 
on the ground. Margarita Mazo once said 
that Ralph could be like a tank when deal- 
ing with bureaucratic obstacles. He was an 
excellent strategist. He had romantic prin- 
ciples, encased in stately formality He was 
a champion of traditional musics. It didn't 



matter what the odds were — if he 
believed in it, he went to great lengths. 

Ethel maintains that her relationship 
with Ralph was critical to her work today. 

ER: My direction was so formed by 
my association with Ralph. Ralph 
was a mover and a shaker, but my 
relationship with him was personal. 
Ralph was someone who got excited 
about traditional music and how it 
fit into people's lives — the extra- 
ordinary artistry of ordinary people. 
He had an incredible disposition 
and enormous optimism. He could 
find humor in all situations. If things 
didn't work out, you hardly ever 
knew it because he managed to turn 
adversity into something positive. 
It's easy to feel isolated doing this 
work, and it was wonderful to have a 
kindred spirit. 

Compiled by Emily Botein 

Founder and former co-artistit and executive 
director with Ethel Raim of the Center for 
Traditional Music and Dance, Martin Koenig 
has recorded, filmed, and photographed 
music and dance in Balkan villages and in 
urban immigrant communities in the United 
States since 1966. He has taught Balkan 
dance for the past 30 years throughout the 
United States, Canada, and Western Europe. 

Kocuig retired from the center in 1994, and 
has directed the King County Performance 
Network, a touring program of contemporary 
dance in the Seattle, Washington, area, for the 
past two years. 

As artistic and executive director of the Center 
for Traditional Music and Dance since 1994, 
Ethel Raim is a leading supporter of and 
advocate for community-based traditional 
arts and has conducted extensive field 
research in urban immigrant communities in 
the United States. Shice the early 1 960s, Raim 
has frequently performed traditional Balkan, 
Russian, and Yiddish vocal music, and was 
founder and musical director of the Penny- 
whistlers, a seven-woman vocal ensemble that 
recorded for Nonesuch and Elektra Records. 

77 



The Fifth Annual Ralph 
Rinzler Memorial Concert 

Traditional Music for the Wedding 



Martin Koenig founded the 
Balkan Arts Center in 1966; 
Ethel Raim joined in 1975. In 
1981, Balkan Arts became the Ethnic Folk 
Arts Center (EFAC). In 1998, EFAC 
became the Center for Traditional Music 
and Dance. Although its name has 
changed, the center continues to strength- 
en traditional music and dance indige- 
nous to ethnic communities in New York. 

The 1999 Ralph Rinzler Memorial 
Concert, featuring the Yuri Yurmkov 
Ensemble and Ensemble Tereza, reflects 
the history of the center and its range of 
programs. Yuri Yunakov hails from 
Bulgaria — one of the first regions in 
which the Balkan Arts Center conducted 
research. Ensemble Tereza came to the 
attention of the center through the Soviet 
Jewish Cottmwnity Cuhural Initiative, a 
multiyear project begun in 1997 that 
encourages communities to participate in 
the conservation of their own heritage 
and artistic traditions. 

Yuri Yunakov Ensemble 

Carol Silverman 

(CT A Tedding music" has become the 

V V most widely Hstened-to form of 
folk/popular music in Bulgaria, 
Macedonia, and their diaspora commu- 
nities. Most often played for dancing at 
life-cycle celebrations — as its name 
suggests — wedding music expands 
upon traditional melodies while display- 
ing virtuosic technique, improvisation, 
fast speeds, daring key changes, and 
influences from jazz, rock, Turkish, and 
Indian musics, as well as Balkan village 

78 




folk music. Yuri Yunakov was one of the 
founders of this energetic, contemporary 
musical form. 

As professional instrumentalists, 
Roma (Gypsies) have played an impor- 
tant role in wedding music and other 
Balkan folk music. Yuri Yunakov was 
born of Turkish Rom ancestry in 
Haskovo, Bulgaria. He began playing the 
kaval (end-blown wooden flute) at age 
eight but switched to the tapan (two- 
headed drum) to accompany his father 
and brother at weddings. After a profes- 
sional career in boxing, he took up the 
clarinet and joined his brother's wedding 
band. Yuri is a self-taught musician; he 
says, "The neighborhood was my 
school." 

In the early 1980s, Yuri switched to 
saxophone and later joined Ivo Papazov's 
acclaimed band, Trakija. In Bulgaria, 
Yuri and Ivo achieved the fame enjoyed 



Yuri Yunakov Ensemble. 

Photo © Linda Vartoogian 

by rock stars in the West. Nevertheless, 
Yuri was repeatedly harassed, fined, and 
twice sent to prison, all for playing Rom 
and Turkish music, which were prohibit- 
ed as part of the socialist government s 
program to eliminate "foreign" elements 
in Bulgarian music. Wedding music itself 
was suppressed by that government but 
nevertheless thrived in unofficial set- 
tings as a countercultural expression. In 
post-socialist Eastern Europe, Roma 
have become the targets of numerous 
violent mob attacks. 

Since arriving in the United States in 
1994, Yuri has become one of the most 
sought-after musicians in the Macedo- 
nian Rom community in New York City, 
which is now more than 7,000 strong 
and predominately Bronx-based. A 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Bronx resident himself, Yuri is also 
in great demand among New York's 
Bulgarian and Turkish communities. 
The Yuri Yunakov Ensemble includes 
Yuri Yunakov (saxophone), accordionist 
Ivan Milev, Lauren Brody (synthesizer 
and vocals), Catherine Foster (clarinet 
and vocals), Jerry Kisslinger {tapan), 
and Carol Silverman (vocals). 



Suggested Listening 

Ivo Papazov. Balkanology. Hannibal Records. 

Ivo Papazov and His Bulgarian Wedding 
Band. Orpheus Ascending. 
Hannibal/Ryko. 

Yuri Yunakov. Balada — Bulgarian 
Wedding Music. Traditional Cross- 
roads 4291. 

Yuri Yunakov. New Colors in Btdgarian 
Wedding Music. Traditional 
Crossroads 4283. 



Professor of cultural anthropology aud folk- 
lore at the University of Oregon in Eugene, 
Carol Silverman has done field research in 
Bulgaria ami has worked with Roma in 
Bulgaria, Macedonia, Hungary, and New 
York. She is completing a book on Balkan 
Rom culture and identity. She was a member 
of the vocal trio Zenska Pesna for over 
1 5 years and now performs with various 
groups on the West Coast, including Slave]. 



Ensemble Tereza 

Michael Alpert 

The recent arrival of over 4,000 
Mountain Jews from the Eastern 
Caucasus, in particular Azerbaijan and 
Dagestan, marks an exciting develop- 
ment in New York's cultural scene. 
Speaking Djuhuri (from the Hebrew 
Y(?/;«f//, "Jewish"), an Iranian language 
related to Persian, many members of 
New York's Mountain Jewish community 
trace their ancestry to Kuba in northern 
Azerbaijan. Divided by a river and 
linked by bridges ("similar to Man- 
hattan and Brooklyn," jokes one com- 
munity member), Kuba's two distinct 
halves are home to Muslims and Jews, 
respectively Over the past century, 
many Mountain Jews moved to Baku, 
capital of Azerbaijan, joining the city's 
educated class and becoming partici- 
pants in commerce and trade. Since the 
dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990, 
many Mountain Jews have emigrated, 
some 35,000 to Israel and approximately 
7,000 to the United States. In New York, 
the community maintains an active tra- 
ditional life, with a synagogue on Ocean 
Parkway in Brooklyn, where most of the 
community lives. 

Ensemble Tereza's music features tra- 
ditional south Caucasian instruments 
like the tar (a long-necked lute), the daf 
(a large tambourine), the nakara (a two- 
headed drum, played with sticks), the 
zarb (an hourglass-shaped metal drum), 
and \\\e garnwn (the diatonic accordion 
popular throughout the Caucasus), as 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 




Ensemble Tereza. Photo by Dan Rest 

well as more modern instruments like 
the clarinet, keyboard/synthesizer, and 
electric bass. Typical of their multiethnic 
milieu, Mountain Jewish singers like 
Tereza Elizarova sing in a variety of lan- 
guages including Djuhuri, Azeri, Turkish, 
Persian, Hebrew, and Arabic. 

Ensemble Tereza consists of five musi- 
cians from Brooklyn: Tereza Elizarova 
(vocals and accordion); her nephew, 
Ruslan Agababayev (keyhoard, garfnon); 
her two brothers, Robson Yefraimov 
(guitar) and Mark Elizarov (percussion); 
Alex Hafizov (clarinet); Rashad Mamedov 
(garmon); and dancers Salamon Ryvinov 
and Victoria Minayev The Elizarov and 
Yefraimov families are from Baku and 
come from a long line of musicians, in 



Typical of their 
multiethnic 
milieUy Mountain 
Jewish singers like 
Tereza Elizarova 
sing in a variety 
of languages.... 

particular of women performers. 
Elizarova's grandmother was one of the 
first Mountain Jewish women to play the 
accordion publicly When Elizarova sings 
at weddings in New York, frequently the 
bridal family knows her family and its 
musical reputation from Azerbaijan. Her 
father (accordionist Khanuko Elizarov) 
may well have performed at the wedding 
of the parents of the bride or groom, and 
her grandmother, also an accordionist, at 
the wedding of the grandparents. 

Michael Alpert is a leading expert in Eastern 
European Jewish music and dance. Adept in 
20 languages, Alpert has extensive experience 
programming and presenting Jewish culture, 
and has collaborated with the Center for 
Traditional Music and Dance for more than 
16 years. Renowned as a Yiddish singer, 
Alpert plays violin, accordion, and drum, and 
performs interimtionally with the new Jewish 
music ensemble, Brave Old World. 

79 



General Festival Information 



Festival Participants 82 

Festival Partners, Sponsors, Contributors, and Donors 86 

Festival Staff 90 

Associated Conferences and Seminars 92 

Educational Offerings 93 

Evening Programs Calendar 94 

Special Concerts and Events 95 

Recent Books about the Festival 
and Smithsonian Folkways 96 

Lily Spandorf Festival Collection 97 

Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 98 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 81 



Festival Participants 



New Hampshire 

Musical Traditions 

Franco-American Music 

Elwin "Shorty" Boulet, bones 

player; Whitefield 
Alan Cote, soiree singer; Auburn 
Fabienne Cote, soiree singer/ 

accordionist; Londonderry 
Rick Cote, soiree singer; 

Londonderry 
Rejeanne Letourneau, soiree singer; 

Rochester 
Gary Pomerleau, fiddler; Rochester 
Joe Pomerleau, fiddler; Rochester 
Henry Riendeau, fiddler; Berlin 
Larry Riendeau, fiddler; Berlin 
Jeanne Trepanier, soiree singer; 

Rochester 

Contra Dance Music 
Old New England 
Bob McQuillen, pianist; 

Peterborough 
Jane Orzechowski, fiddler; 

Newport 
Deanna Stiles, flautist; Deerfield 

Mary DesRosiers, contra dance 

caller; Harrisville 
Rodney Miller, fiddler; Antrim 
David Millstone, contra dance 

caller; Lebanon 
Sylvia Miskoe, accordionist; 

Concord 
Francis Orzechowski, pianist; 

Newport 
David Surette, guitarist; 

Portsmouth 
Jordan Tirrell-Wysocki, fiddler; 

Canterbury 
Harvey Tolman, fiddler; Nelson 
Timm Triplett, pianist; Nevmiarket 
Steve Zakon-Anderson, contra 

dance caller; Hancock 
William Zecker, 

fiddler/guitarist/pianist; Durham 

New England Barn Dance 
Fiddling & Calling 
Two Fiddles 
Dudley Lauftnan, fiddler/caller; 

Canterbury 
Jacqueline Lauftnan, 

fiddler; Canterbury 



Singing Squares 

David Bradley, bassist; Woodstock 
Lester Bradley, 
guitarist/caller; Thornton 

Scottish Piping & Dance 

New Hampshire School for 

Scottish Arts — Manchester 
Megan Marsh, step dancer 
Maggie Meffen, step dancer 
Gordon Webster, bagpiper 
Lezlie Patterson Webster, bagpiper 

Irish Music & Dance 

Sarah Bauhan, flautist; Dublin 
Regina Delaney, harpist/vocals/step 

and ceili dancer; Exeter 
Michael Serpa, hodhran/ 

whistle player; Ossipee 
Jake Stewart, fiddler; Bow 

Polish Music & Dance 

Daniel Blajda, fiddler; Manchester 
Michael Oliszczak, fiddler; 

Manchester 
Gary Sredzienski, accordionist; 

Greenland 

Klezmer Music 
The Raymond St. Klezmer Band 
Sandra Dickens, vocals; Nashua 
Nelson Frisselle, percussionist; 

Manchester 
Alan Green, clarinetist/vocals; 

Nashua 
Ruth Weiner Harris, accordionist; 

HoUis 
Alan Karlsberg, clarinetist/ 

saxophonist; Nashua 
Frederick Malkin, pianist/vocals; 

Londonderry 
Bruce Smith, bassist; Merrimack 

African-American 
Gospel & Spirituals 

Wilmerlee Findlay, pianist/vocals; 

Amherst 
Minister Lydia Mann, vocals; 

Manchester 
Minister Olga Times, 

vocals; Nashua 

Hispanic Music 

Bernardo Guzman, guitarist/vocals; 

Somersworth 
Maria Guzman, vocals; 

Somersworth 



Home, Town & Community 

Comfort in the Home 

Karen Cook, spinner; Grantham 
Vivian Eastman, quilter; Glenn 
Barbara Fisher, rug braider; Mt. 

Sunapee 
Dona Larsen, Norwegian knitter; 

Berlin 
Dorothy Towle, quilter/rug hooker; 

Intervale 
Sandra Yacek, wreath maker; Milan 
Wayne Yacek, gardener/tool- 
maker; Milan 

Images of Community 

Andre Belanger, sign maker; Berlin 
Jairo Gil, Colombian casa wood- 
carver; Manchester 
Sara Glines, doU maker; Randolph 

Our Shared Border — 
Franco-American Traditions 

Gerard Brunelle, woodcarver; 

Laconia 
Albert Hamel, genealogist; Chester 

Crafts of Worship & 
Celebration 

Marjorie "Moocho" Salomon, 

lallitot weaver; Bethlehem 
Galina Tregubov, Russian 

Orthodox icon embroiderer; 

Claremont 
Kung Tai Tsay, Chinese knot tier; 

Nashua 

Community Voice — Political 
Traditions in New Hampshire 

Georgi Hippauf; Nashua 
Donna Soucy; Manchester 

Hearth & Home — 
Foodways Traditions 

Chrysanthe Nagios, Greek cook; 
Bedford 

Rebecca Parker, Yankee cook; 
Randolph 

Helen Pervanas, Greek cook; 
Bedford 

Estelle Gamache Ross, Franco- 
American cook; Allenstown 



Ingenuity & Enterprise 

League of New Hampshire 
Craftsmen 

Fred Dolan, decoy carver; 

Center Barnstead 
Anne Winterling, rug hooker; 

Concord 

Craft Guilds 

Omar Clairmont, furniture maker; 

Gilmanton 
David Lamb, furniture maker; 

Canterbury 
Russell Pope, blacksmith; 

Newmarket 
Jonathan Siegel, furniture maker; 

Franklin 

Hearts to God, Hands to Work 
— Shaker Crafts in New 
Hampshire 

Steve Allman, oval box maker; 

Canterbury 
Barbara Heeler, oval box maker; 

Contoocook 
Norma Badger George, poplarware 

maker; Concord 
Rob Roy Robb, weaver; Laconia 

Business & Community 

Arthur Anderson, loom maker - 

Harrisville Designs; Marlow 
Terry Lontine, cooper - 

Spaulding & Frost; Newton 
PoUy Pinkham, firefighting suit 

maker - Globe Firefighting Suits; 

Northwood 
Rob Roy Robb, weaver; Laconia 

Business & Family 

Betty Blanchard, chair reseater; 

Concord 
Peter Blanchard, chair reseater; 

Concord 
Bob Taylor, welder; Alstead 
Newt Washburn, ash basket maker; 

Bethlehem 



82 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Festival Participants 



Innovation & Invention 

Bill Latva, precision machinist; 

Sunapee 
Charles Lawrence, Portsmouth 

Naval Shipyard; Stratham 
E.D. Miller, Portsmouth Naval 

Shipyard; Stratham 
Dave Packard, precision machinist; 

Hillsboro 
Adam Taylor, precision machinist; 

Claremont 
Frank E. Wiggins, precision 

machinist; Guild 

Seasonal Work & Recreation 

Weather 

Barry Keim, Climate Change 
Research Center, University of 
New Hampshire; Durham 

Greg Zielinski, Glacier Research 
Group, University of New 
Hampshire; Durham 

Spring 

Tim Levesque, Appalachian 

Mountain Club; Jackson 
Peter Limmer III, hiking-boot 

maker; Intervale 
Clare Long, Appalachian Mountain 

Club; Glen 
Chris Thayer, Appalachian 

Mountain Club; lackson 

Summer Camp 

Lynn Garland, children's activities; 

Brentwood 
Lisa Kelly, children's activities; 

Westmoreland 

Fall 

Mark Favorite, fly tier; Rochester 
Fred Kretchman, rod maker; 

Nashua 
David Price, gun builder; 

Contoocook 
lay Trayner, canoe builder; Warner 

Winter 

Scott Barthold, snow-making 
technology - Sno.matic Controls 
and Engineering, Inc.; Lebanon 

Paul Doherty, snowmobiler; 
Gorham 

Walter Elander, ski resort design - 
sno. engineering; Littleton 

Ken Hammerle, ski resort design - 
sno.engineering; Littleton 



George Lemerise, ski search and 

rescuer - Attitash Bear Peak; 

lackson 
loel Nordholm, dog-sled maker; 

Tilton 
Matthew Purcell, snow-making 

technology - Sno.matic Controls 

and Engineering, Inc.; Lebanon 
Henri Vallaincourt, snowshoe 

maker; Greenville 
Bruno Vallieres, ski-slope groomer 

- Attitash Bear Peak; North 

Conway 

Farm, Forest, 
Mountain & Sea 

Farming 

Richard Dionne, bee keeper; 

Hudson 
Mary Ellen Hutchinson, maple sug- 
aring/apple orchards; Canterbury 
Roy Hutchinson, maple 

sugaring/apple orchards; 

Canterbury 
Betty Moulton, maple 

sugaring/dairy farmer; New 

Hampton 
Robert Moulton, maple 

sugaring/dairy farmer; New 

Hampton 
Peter Wagner, apple grower; 

Hampton 

Skills & Crafts of Work 
Animals 

Bob Boynton, yoke maker; 

Dunbarton 
Hugh Fifield, draft horse 

worker/storyteller; Canterbury 
Bob Graves, oxen teamster/dairy 

farmer; Walpole 
David Kennard, sheepdog trainer; 

Marlborough 
Cliff McGinnis, draft horse 

worker/veterinary medicine; 

Pembroke 
Andy Westover, oxen 

teamster/dairy farmer; Walpole 



Forest & Lumber Traditions 

Tom Chrisenton, tree farm/forestry 

management; Lyndeborough 
Virginia Chrisenton, tree 

farm/forestry management; 

Lyndeborough 
Barry Kelley, sawmill management; 

Berlin 
Stan Knowles, tree farm inspector; 

North Hampton 

The Arts of Historic 
Restoration 

David Adams, historic buildings 

conservationist; Portsmouth 
Arnold Graton, Jr., covered bridge 

conservationist; Concord 
Arnold Graton, Sr., covered bridge 

conservationist; Ashland 
Stephen Roy, historic buildings 

conservationist; Portsmouth 

Timber Framing 

Tedd Benson, tiinber framer; 

Alstead 
loel McCarty, timber framer; 

Alstead 

Granite & Stone 

Doug Faxon, stone wall builder; 

Walpole 
Kevin Fife, stone wall builder; 

Northfield 
Hans Kaufhold, monument carver; 

Peterborough 

Maritime Traditions 

Jim Antanavich, Sr., gill net maker; 

Seabrook 
Trudy Antanavich, gill net maker; 

Seabrook 
Jeffrey Fogman, boat builder; 

Barrington 
Nate Hanscom, lobster 

fisherman; Rye 
Mike Kozlowski, lobster 

fisherman; Rye 
Arthur Splaine, lobster 

fisherman; Rye 
Carl Widen, lobster 

fisherman; Rye 



South Africa 

Craft Traditions 

Fai-Qah Abrahams, textiles; 

Western Cape 
Nofanelekile Batayi, beadworker; 

Eastern Cape 
Eunice Cele, beadworker; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Joao Wenner Dikuanga, ostrich egg 

engraver; Northern Cape 
Susanna du Preez, copper and wire 

worker; Free State 
Nosipho Fengwena, textiles; 

Western Cape 
Themba Gule, sculptor; 

Mpumalanga 
Nontsikelelo Caroline Javu, 

textiles; Western Cape 
S. W. Khamokha, tapestry; 

Free State 
Zibuyale Sylvina Langa, 

beadworker; KwaZulu-Natal 
Leepile lames Lekaba, quilter; 

North West 
Albertina Thembekile Majola, 

beadworker; KwaZulu-Natal 
Eslina Zodwa Maphumulo, weaver; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Leticia Phumza Maqulo, textiles; 

Western Cape 
Dumisile Phumulile Mathe, toy 

maker; KwaZulu-Natal 
Rebecca Mathibe, ceramics; 

Northern Province 
Zandile Patience Mayekiso, textiles; 

Western Cape 
Absalom Mazibuko, sculptor; 

Mpumalanga 
Martha Mologadi Metlae, 

embroiderer; North West 
Eric Mfeketho, leatherworker; 

Eastern Cape 
Andre Stavu Misheshe, tinworker; 

Northern Cape 
Fatty Alfred Mnguni, tapestry; 

Free State 
Conie Sydney Mokwena, quilter; 

North West 
Raseetsi Alice Molaba, grass 

weaver; Free State 
Mpatuoa Violet Moloi, grass 

weaver; Free State 
Henry Gqetha Mshololo, sculptor; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Dikuwa Erna Mushinga, tinworker; 
Northern Cape 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



83 



Festival Participants 



Nobongiie F. Mzaku, beadworker; 

Eastern Cape 
Nester Landeleni Nala, ceramics; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Dorcas Kidibone Ngobeni, 

embroiderer; North West 
Emma Nguni, beadworker; 

Mpumalanga 
Celani Hlabisa Nojiyeza, 

beadworker; KwaZulu-Nata] 
Anna Ntuli, beadworker; 

Mpumalanga 
Beauty Bothembile Nxgongo, 

weaver; KwaZulu-Natal 
Enos Phalanndwa, woodcarver; 

Northern Province 
Moses Seleko, toy maker/wire 

worker; Gauteng 
Thomas Shuma, gold jeweler; 

Gauteng 
Philemon Songweni, sculptor; 

KwaZulu-Natal 

Music and Dance Traditions 

Phambili Marimba — 

African marimba 
Mandla Brian Huna, tenor 

marimba player; Western Cape 
Themba William Huna, African 

drummer; Western Cape 
Jongisizwe Christopher Monatsi, 

bass marimba player; 

Western Cape 
Luzuko Dennis Nqikashe, 

percussionist; Western Cape 
Bongani Sydwell Sotshononda, 

soprano marimba player; 

Western Cape 

Shivulani — 
Tsonga traditional dance 

GROUP 

Evans Chauke, drummer/vocals; 

Northern Province 
Shadrack Sikheto Mabasa, 

drummer/vocals; 

Northern Province 
Cathrine Mahlawule, 

drummer/dancer/vocals; 

Northern Province 
Hlupheka Steven Mahlavmle, 

drummer; Northern Province 
Phineas Mahlawule, bass 

drummer/dancer/vocals; 

Northern Province 
Sayina Mahlawule, 

drummer/dancer/vocals; 

Northern Province 

84 



Solias Mahlawule, dancer/vocals; 

Northern Province 
Hamilton Mayimele, 

drummer/dancer/vocals; 

Northern Province 
Florah Miyambo, 

drummer/dancer/vocals; 

Northern Province 

Surialanga Dance Company — 

Zulu-Indian fusion 
Subbalakshmi Deenadeyalan 

Govender, dancer; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Mthokozisi Stembiso Hlela, 

drummer/dancer; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Ntando Eugene Mhlongo, 

drummer/dancer; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Siyabonga Pascal Mkhombe, 

drummer/dancer; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Shalini Moodley, dancer; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Adhika Naidoo, dancer; 

KwaZulu-Natal 
Sibusiso Innocent Ndebele, drum- 
mer/dancer; KwaZulu-Natal 
Ruendhrie Pather, dancer; 

KwaZulu-Natal 

Teemayo Traditional Dance 

Group — Tswana traditions 
Magaoropelwe Angelina Chweu, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 
Alcyma Kgotso Maile, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 
Patrick Kgosietsile Mogoiwa, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 
Dennis James Mogorosi, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 
Dipuo Sylvia Mosimanyana, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 
Lerato Moira Mothelesi, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 
Thabiso Eugene Mothelesi, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 
Horatius Vusumze Phantshwa, 

drummer/dancer/vocals; 

Northern Cape 
Mirriam Barbara Pietersen, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 
Gilbert Bothata Pisane, 

drummer/dancer/vocals; 

Northern Cape 
Elizabeth Setumisho, 

dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 



Elliot Mzimkhulu Xesi, 
dancer/vocals; Northern Cape 

Oral/Play Traditions 

Nomsa Mdlalose, storyteller; 

Guateng 
SandiJe Mtshiki, traditional games; 

Gauteng 

Foodways Traditions 
(Grandma's Kitchen) 

Anna Catharina Fourie; Gauteng 
Masindi Mudau; Northern 

Province 
Joyce Phoqela; Eastern Cape 
Faldela Williams; Western Cape 
Monica Zwane; Mpumalanga 

Architecture/ 
Painting Traditions 

Andry Kashivi, muralist; 

Northern Cape 
Pule Edward Khunou, mixed 

medium; North West 
Mavis Makhubu, muralist; 

Free State 
Joseph Mkhanyiselwa Manana, 

muralist; KwaZulu-Natal 
Steven Maqashela, muralist; 

Guateng 
Bernardo Rumao, muralist; 

Northern Cape 
Moseketsi Emily TJhapi, muralist; 

Free State 
Monica Zwane, traditional 

architecture; Mpumalanga 



Romania 

Music and Dance Traditions 

Folk Ensemble from Soporu de 

CAmpie and Frata, Clui 
Alexandru $andorica Ciurcui, 

violinist 
Maria Ciurcui, dancer 
Romulus Ciurcui, violinist 
Alexandru Gheti, 

hraci (viola) player 
luliu Gheti, contrabassist 
Dumitru Moldovan, dancer/vocals 
Vasile Soporan, dancer/vocals 
Florineta Ilincuja Trif, dancer 

CosAnzeana — Folk Ensemble 

FROM OrA^jtioara de Jos, 

Hunedoara 
Emilia-Cornelia Bolo{, 

vocals/dancer 
Adrian loan Bruzan, vocals/dancer 
Alina-Valeria Bruzan, 

vocals/dancer 
Eugen-Ioan Bruzan, 

leader/dancer/vocals 
Valeria Bruzan, vocals/dancer 
Camelia-Gabriela Bura, 

dancer/vocals 
Datln Georgescu, vocals/dancer 
Sorin-Ioan Georgescu, 

vocals/dancer 
Dorel Josin Sibi^an, 

braci (viola) player 
Valentin-Florin loan Stancioi, 

contrabassist 
loan (Nelefu) Urs I, violinist 
loan Urs II, violinist 

VAlAretul — Folk Ensemble from 

Voinejti, Vaslui 
Sorinel Balan, clarinetist 
Benone Gherman, trumpet player 
Ion Gherman, trumpet player 
Costel Miron, dancer (lunap) 
Andrei-Stefan Novae, dancer 

(New Year/pony) 
Valeriu Novae, leader/dancer 

(bear tamer) 
lonel-Romeo Obreja, dancer 

(old woman) 
Maricel Petreanu, drummer 
Constantin Placinta, dancer (bear) 
Eugen Silav, dancer {old man) 
Danuju Stangaciu, 

baritone horn player 
Ion Stoican, bassist 
Constantin Zota, dancer (goat/pony) 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Festival Participants 



CAlujul — Folk Ensemble 

FROM Opta^i, Olt 
Hie Constantin, fanihal 

(hammered dulcimer) player 
Marin Florea, dancer 
George Slavi lonescu, dancer 
Vasile Pirciu, dancer 
Valerica Pircalaboiu, dancer 
Marin Scarlat, dancer 
Florea Turuianu, leader/dancer 
Narcis-Daniel Turuianu, dancer 
Radu Xifiriga, violinist 

VoiEvozii — Folk Ensemble from 
Bogdan-VodA, Maramure^ 

loan Buftea, dancer/flute/ 
whistle player 

Maria Buftea, dancer 

Ion Coman, dancer 

Irina Coman, dancer 

loan Deac, dancer 

Ion Ghereben, drummer/ 
zongora (guitar) player 

loan Mari^, dancer/vocals 

Irina Mari?, dancer/vocals 

Petru Orza, violinist 

Doina Simon, dancer/vocals 

Vasile Simon, drummer/dancer 



Jara Oajului — Folk Ensemble 

from BiXAD, Maramure^ 
Nicolae Dorlea, zongora 

(guitar) player/vocals 
Cristina Irina Finta, dancer/ 

(dpuritoare (vocals) 
Maria Goje, dancer/ fdpuritoare 

(vocals) Weaving 

Nicolae Honca, cetera 

(violin) player 
Irina Ore?, dancer/ fdpuritoare 

(vocals) 
lacob Pop, leader/dancer/vocals 
Grigore Tat, cetera (violin) 

player/vocals 
loan Tatar, dancer/vocals/ 
' zongora (guitar) player 
Gheorghe Tope, 

dancer/vocals/ trd mhifa 
II (alphorn) player 

. Trio Pandelescu — Urban Folk 
11 Group from Bucharest 

Leonard Botea, double bass player 

Ian Mocanu, accordionist/vocals 

Dumitru Pandelescu, (ainhal 
(hammered dulcimer) player 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Nightlosers — Urban Ethno-Pop 

Group from Clui-Napoca 
Octavian Andreescu, bass guitarist 
Sorin Cimpean, drummer 
Geza Grunzo, keyboard player 
Hanno Hoefer, guitar/harmonica 

player/vocals 
limi Laco, guitar player/violinist 
Eugen Pandrea, /runza (leatl player 
Aladar Pusztai, Jauihal (hammered 
dulcimer) player 

Dumitru Farca^, taragot (special 

clarinet) player; Cluj 
Grigore Leje, doinitor (vocals); 

Cluj 
Dorel Rohian, accordionist; Cluj 
Anufa Tite, doinitoare (vocals); 

Maramure? 
Nicolae Voiculet, panpipe player; 

Prahova 

Craft Traditions 

Ceramics 

Florin Colibaba, potter; Radau(i, 

Suceava 
Neculai Diaconu, clay figurine 

maker; Codlea, Braijov 
Gheorghe lorga, potter; Horezu, 

Valcea 
Maria lorga, potter; Horezu, 

Valcea 
Augustin Pall, potter; Corund, 

Harghita 
Mihai Tru^ca, potter; Bal?, Olt 



Rodica Maria Ispas, weaver; Buzau 
Margareta Nagy, corn-husk artisan; 

Chendu Mare, Mure;; 
Cristina Delciza Nicolau, 

weaver/eggs and beads; Buzau 
Adela Petre, weaver/spinner; Buzau 
Alice Torella Kosza Szegedi, reed 

dolls and mask artisan; 

Campeni(a, Mure^ 

Woodcarving 

Pavel Caba; Nereju, Vrancea 
Ion Costache; Meri^ani, Prahova 
Dan Gherasimescu; Valea Dorului, 

Arge^ 
Vi(a Lepadatu; Babeni, Valcea 



Icon Painting 

Marioara Ciupitu; Cartijoara 

Abbey, Sibiu 
Angela Niculai; Tulcea 
Filofteia Papacioc; Car(i^oara 

Abbey, Sibiu 
Mihaela-Lidia Zamtlrescu; 

Bucharest 

Ornament and Mask Maliing 

Ion Albu, masks and dolls; Roman 

Mircea Lac, ornaments/woodcuts; 
Deva 

Sabina Costinela Medrea, orna- 
ments; Deva 

Lucia Todoran, ornaments/beaded 
textiles; Bistrija 

Egg Decorating 

Oltica Carstiuc; Vatra Moldovitei, 

Suceava 
Filofteia Drajmici; Vatra 

Moldovi(ei, Suceava 

Foodways Traditions 

Monica Bercovici; Bucharest 
Rodica Bulboaca, Suceava 
lulia Goran, Bucharest 

Church Builders 

Teodor Barsan; Maramure^ 
loan Chindri^; Maramure^ 
Ion Chindri;j; Maramure? 
loan Fodoru(; Maramure? 
Dumitru Hotico; Maramure? 
Gavrila Hotico I; Maramure? 
Gavrila Hotico II; Maramure^ 
Gavrila Hotico III; Maramure? 
Petru loan Pop; Maramure? 

Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert 

Martin Koenig, master of 
ceremonies/dance instructor; 
Vashon Island, WA 

Ethel Raim, master of ceremonies; 
New York, NY 

Ensemble Tereza 

Ruslan Agababayev, keyboard/ 

gariiion player; Brooklyn, NY 
Mark Elizarov, percussionist; 

Brooklyn, NY 
Tereza Elizarova, vocals/ 

accordionist; Brooklyn, NY 
Alex Hafizov, clarinetist; 

Brooklyn, NY 



Rashad Mamedov, 

ganiion player; Brooklyn, NY 
Victoria Minayev, dancer; 

Brooklyn, NY 
Salamon Ryvinov, dancer; 

Brooklyn, NY 
Robson Yefraimov, guitarist; 

Brooklyn, NY 

Yuri Yunakov Ensemble 

Lauren Brody, synthesizer player/ 
vocals; New York, NY 

Catherine Foster, clarinetist/trum- 
pet player/vocals; New York, NY 

lerry Kisslinger, tapan (drum) 
player; New York, NY 

Ivan Milev, accordionist; 
New York, NY 

Carol Silverman, vocals; 
Eugene, OR 

Yuri Yunakov, band leader/saxo- 
phonist; New York, NY 

Conjunto Dance Party 

David Champion, presenter; 
Narciso Martinez Cultural Arts 
Center, San Benito, TX 

Los Hermanos Layton 
Gilbert Gonzalez, electric bass 

player; Elsa, TX 
Norfilia Layton Gonzalez, vocals; 

Elsa, TX 
Antonio V. Layton, gmtar/bajo 

sexto player/vocals; Edinburg, TX 
Benigno Layton, accordionist; 

Elsa, TX 
Rene Layton, drummer; 

Edinburg, TX 

GiLBERTO Perez y Sus Compadres 
Cande Aguilar, Sr., electric bass 

player/vocals; Brownsville, TX 
Gilberto Perez, Jr., hajo sexto 

player/vocals; Mercedes, TX 
Gilberto Perez, Sr., 

accordionist/vocals; 

Mercedes, TX 
laview Perez, driunmer; 

Mercedes, TX 



85 



Festival Partners, Sponsors, Contributors, and Donors 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 

Producer: Smithsonian Institution Center for Folklife 

and Cultural Heritage 
Co-sponsor: National Park Service 
Major Supporters: Smithsonian Institution; Government 

of the United States 
Contributor: The Recording Industries Music 

Performance Trust Funds 



In-Kind Contributors: 

AUegro Industries, 

Garden Grove, CA 
Ashby & Associates Video 

Production Services, 

Alexandria, VA 
Atrista, Indianapolis, IN 
Ben & Jerry's, Alexandria, VA 
Bergwall Productions, Inc., 

Chadds Ford, PA 
Brick Oven Bakery, 

Washington, DC 
Circuit City Foundation, 

Richmond, VA 
The Clarendon Grill, 

Arlington, VA 
Coca-Cola Co., Washington, DC 
Coleman Co., Wichita, KS 
G.L. Cornell Company, 

Gaithersburg, MD 



Costco, Manassas, VA 
Domino's Pizza, Inc., 

Ann Arbor, MI 
Fuji Photo FUm U.S.A., 

Elmsford, NY 
Giant Food Inc., Washington, DC 
Global Village Productions, 

Alexandria, VA 
Goodmark Foods, Raleigh, NC 
Heidelberg Pastry Shop, 

Arlington, VA 
International Food Bakeries, 

Manassas, VA 
Java Tree Gourmet Coffees, Inc., 

Manchester, NH 
Bessie C. Johnson, 

Washington, DC 
Johnson's Flower & Garden Center, 

Washington, DC 
Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, 

Winston-Salem, NC 



Maxell Corporation of America, 

Fair Lawn, NJ 
Media Visions Video Duplication, 

Springfield, VA 
Mediterranean Bakery, Inc., 

Alexandria, VA 
Michelle's Family Bakery, 

Bladensburg, MD 
Monadnock Mountain Spring 

Water, Wilton, NH 
Office Depot, Delray, FL 
Ottenberg's Bakers Incorporated, 

Washington, DC 
Peirce-Phelps, Inc. Audio/Video 

Products, Beltsville, MD 
ProCom Associates Video Produc- 
tion Services, Wilmington, DE 
RAG Solutions, Bethesda, MD 
Red Sage Bakery/General Store, 

Washington, DC 
Reeves Restaurant & Bakery, 

Washington, DC 
Rehabilitation Equipment 

Professionals, Inc., 

Alexandria, VA 
Ricola, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ 
Rockline Industries, Inc., 

Sheboygan, WI 
Sherrill Bakery, Washington, DC 



Shoppers Food Warehouse, 

Corporate Headquarters, 

Lanham, MD 
Sony Electronics, Inc., Teaneck, NJ 
Target Distributing, Audio/Video 

Division, Rockville, MD 
TDK Electronics, 

Port Washington, NY 
Tiffany's Bakery, Temple Hills, MD 
Tourmobile Sightseeing, 

Washington, DC 
Tyson's Bagel Market, 

Tyson's Corner, VA 
Utz Quality Foods, Hanover, PA 
Warfield's Pastry Shop, 

Alexandria, VA 
Warner-Lambert Co., Morris 

Plains, NJ 
William B. Reiley Coffee Co., 

Baltimore, MD 

Special Thanks: 

Folklore Society of Greater 
Washington 

Our gratitude to all of the volun- 
teers who make the Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival possible. 



Celebrating New Hampshire's Stories 

Partners: New Hampshire Commission on the Smithsonian Folklife Festival; 
Celebrate New Hampshire Culture; New Hampshire State Council on 
the Arts; Department of Cultural Resources; State of New Hampshire 

Presenting Sponsor: Bell Adantic 

Major Contributors: Fleet Bank NH; Healthsource New Hampshire, A CIGNA 
Healthcare Company; Public Service of New Hampshire; Sanders, A 
Lockheed Martin Company; Tyco International Ltd.; Fidelity 
Investments; Fisher Scientific International Inc. 

Major Donors: Citizens Bank; Bank of New Hampshire; Clark Hill Sugary; 
Wheelabrator Technologies, Inc. 



Donors: 

AutoFair Group 

Blue Cross and Blue Shield 

of New Hampshire 
Chuck Roast Mountain Wear 
Concord Trailways 
Curran-Easy Care, Inc. 
Dartmouth-Hitchcock 

Medical Center 
D.D. Bean and Sons Co. 
The French Foundation 
Grappone AuJo Companies 
Hitchiner Manufacturing Co. Inc. 
Hyperthern, Inc. 
Kingsbury Corporation 
Markem Corporation 

86 



MCT Telecom 

Monadnock Paper Mills, Inc. 

National Grange 

Mutual Insurance Company 
Olconda Jameson Trust 
PC Connection, Inc. 
Peerless Insurance Company 
Putnam Foundation 
Sitesurfer Publishing, LCC 
State Street Bank 
Super Precision Bearings — 

SBB Division 
The Telegraph 
Timken Aerospace 



In-Kind Contributors: 

Adams and Roy Inc., 

Portsmouth 
Appalachian Mountain Club, 

Jackson 
Arnold M. Graton and 

Associates, Ashland 
Atomic Billards, Washington, DC 
Attitash Bear Peak 
Benson Woodworking 

Company, Inc., Alstead 
Cannon Mountain 
Canterbury Shaker Village, Inc., 

Canterbury 
Commerical Fishermen's 

Association UNH Cooperative 

Extension 
Dodge Lumber 
Filmscene DC 
Garaventa CTEC, Inc. 
Granite State Forest Products 
J.C. Earnes Timber Harvesters 
Herrick Mill Works, Contoocook 
New Hampshire Maple 

Producers Association 
Millbrook Farm Woodworks, 

Westmoreland 



New England Ski Museum 
New Hampshire 

Beekeeper's Association 
New Hampshire 

Department of Agriculture 
New Hampshire Division of Maps 
New Hampshire Office of Travel 

and Tourism Development 
Pleasant View Gardens, 

Loudon 
Russell Gardens Wholesale, 

Richborough, PA 
Spaulding & Frost, LLC, Fremont 
State of New Hampshire, 

Department of Corrections, 

Concord 
Sweet Memories Farm, Milan 
Swenson Granite Company, LLC, 

Concord 
Timber Framer's Guild of North 

America, Alstead 
Timco 
Vermont Brick Manufacturing, 

Highgate Center, VT 



Continued on next page 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Festival Partners, Sponsors, Contributors, and Donors 



special Thanks: 

Celebrate New Hampshire Culture 
Commission on the Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival: 

Representative David Alukonis 
Daniel Callaghan 
Michael Chaney 

Representative Martha Fuller Clark 
I.B. Cullen 
Richard Danais 
I Fred Dolan 

Katharine Eneguess 

Representative Natalie Flanagan 

James Garvin 

Kathleen Gregg 

Senator Carl Johnson 

Senator Sylvia Larsen 

Rebecca Lawrence 

Van McLeod 

Lauri Ostrander 

Beverly Rodeschin 

Laura Sinioes 

Mervin Stevens 

Melissa Walker 

Celebrate New Hampshire Culture 
Board of Directors: 

Representative David Alukonis 

Richard Ashooh 

Daniel Callaghan 

Michael Chaney 

Katherine Eneguess 

Burt Feintuch 

|. Michael Hickey 

Van McLeod 

Gail McWilliam 

L. Douglas O'Brien 

Mervin Stevens 

Jeffrey Taylor 

Melissa Walker 

State of New Hampshire 

Department of Agriculture, 

Markets & Food 
Department of Corrections 
Department of Cultural Resources 
Department of Education 
Department of Resources & 
' Economic Development 
Department of Safety 
Department of Transportation 
Executive Councilors 
Governor's Office 
Liquor Commission 
National Guard 
New Hampshire Community 

College Technical System 
New Hampshire State Library 



New Hampshire Technical Institute 
Office of State Planning 
Office of Travel and Tourism 
Office of Volunteerism 
Postsecondary Education 

Committee 
Sweepstakes Commission 
University of New Hampshire 

Dave Adams, Adams and Roy Inc. 
Jennifer Annis 
Ralph Arnold, Timco 
Maria Baier, Sno. engineering 
Adele Baker, 

Franco-American Center 
Patricia Baker, 

Bell-Atlantic YeUow Pages 
Phil Bartels, Timco 
Nancy Beach 

Richard Bean, Concord Litho 
Jane Beck, Vermont Folklife Center 
Karen Bennet, University of 

New Hampshire Cooperative 

Extension 
Tedd Benson, Benson 

Woodworking Company, Inc. 
Mimi Bergere, New Hampshire 

Partners in Education 
Steve Bernier, Public Service Co. 
Fred Bishop, Public Service Co. 
Lynne Blye, 

Granite State Dairy Promotion 
Mary Jo Boisvert, 

Public Service Co. 
Jackie Bonafide and the 

New Hampshire Writer's Project 
Ben Brungraber, Benson 

Woodworking Company, Inc. 
Alyson Bruu 
Phil Bryce, Division of Forests and 

Lands, DRED 
Alan Burgess, Sign Shop Manager, 

State of New Hampshire 

Department of Corrections 
Bill Cahill, Spaulding & Frost, LLC 
Canterbury Shaker Village 
Linda Carter, Bell Atlantic 
Susan Cerutti, Meredith Area 

Chamber of Commerce 
Liz Chamberlain, Office of 

Congressman John Sununu 
Deborah Cheever, 

Merrimack County Cooperative 

Extension Services 
Janie Chester- Young, 

Canterbury Shaker Village 
Clark Hill Inc. 



Helen Closson, 

Franco-American Center 
John Collins, Dartmouth 

Hitchcock Medical Center 
John and Pat Colony, 

Harrisville Designs 
Matt Cookson, P.C. Connection 
Janice Crawford, Mount Washing- 
ton Valley Chamber of Commerce 
J.B. Cullen, New Hampshire 

Division of Forests and Lands 
Darwin Cusack, Office of 

Congressman Charlie Bass 
Paula DeLisi, New Hampshire 

State Council on the Arts 
Alice DeSouza 
John Dodge, Dodge Lumber 
Jim Dolph, Portsmouth Naval 

Shipyard Museum 
Patrick Duffy 
Durgin and Crowell 
Jeff Eames, 

J.C. Eames Timber Harvesters 
Rachel Eames, 

Eames Insurance Service 
Carolyn Falgaras, Milford/ Amherst 

Chamber of Commerce 
Doug Faxon 
Ted and April Ferguson, 

Millbrook Farm Woodworks 
Kevin Fife 

Michelle Fleury, This Old House 
Eve Fogarty, Bell Atlantic 
William T. Frain, 

Public Service Co. 
Franco-American Center, 

Manchester 
Freese Family, 

Globe Firefighting Suits 
Jameson French, 

Northland Forest Products 
Richard French, 

Granite State Forest Products 
Gerrity Lumber, a subsidiary of 

Wickes Lumber 
Roland Goodbody, University of 

New Hampshire Milne Special 

Collection and Archive 
Andrea Graham, 

Canterbury Shaker Village 
Arnold M. Graton, Sr. 
Francis J. Haines, Jr., 

Janvier Associates, Inc. 
Serge Hambourg 
Richard Hamilton, White Mountains 

Attractions Association 
Kenneth Hammerle, 

Sno.engineering 



' Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Alan Hardy, Hopkinton State 

Fairgrounds 
Karen Hefler, 

Bell-Atlantic Yellow Pages 
Herrick Mill Works, Inc. 
lohn Herrick, Herrick Mill Works 
Scott Herrick, 

Swenson Granite Company 
Jane Hirschberg 
Gary Howard, 

N.H. Public Television 
International Paper, 

Madison Lumber Mill 
Susan Jasse 
Sandi Jones, 

General Federation of Women's 

Clubs of New Hampshire 
Brian Johnson, The Common Man 
Paula Katkin, 

Bell-Adantic Yellow Pages 
Sean Kelly, Vermont Brick 

Manufacturing 
Peter Kiriakoutsos, 

Howe, Riley and Howe, 

Professional Corporation 
Steve Kohn, Bell Atlantic 
Claire Kounelas, Howe, Riley and 

Howe, Professional Corporation 
Amy Landers, 

Capitol Center for the Arts 
League of New Hampshire 

Craftsmen 
Matt Leahy, 

Office of Senator Judd Gregg 
Helen Learned 
Stephanie Lewry, 

In-Town Manchester 
Library of Archives of New 

Hampshire Political Traditions 
Paul Lodi 
Bill Lord 

Mary Loring, Strawbery Banke 
Charlton MacVeagh, Jr. 
Kevin Martin, Best Western 

Sunapee Lake Lodge 
Joel McCarty, Timber Framers 

Guild of North America 
Mary McGuiness 
Nancy Marden 
Patricia Miller, 

Office of Senator Bob Smith 
Bruce Montville, Governor's Office 

on Volunteerism 
Mt. Washington Observatory 
Bernard Mucci, 

Tyco International Ltd. 

Continued on next page 

87 



Festival Partners, Sponsors, Contributors, and Donors 



Michael Neil, 
Northern White Mountains 
Chamber of Commerce 

Beverly Nemetz 

Kate Nerrie, Benson 
Woodworking Company, Inc. 

New Hampshire Business 
Committee on the Arts 

New Hampshire 
Humanities Council 

Lona Norton 

Catherine O'Brien, New Hamp- 
shire State Council on the Arts 

Bob O'Connell, This Old House 

Patrick O'Grady, Eagle Times 

Dick Ober and the 
Society tor the Protection of 
New Hampshire Forests 

Bruce Olson, 
Transformative Technology 

Jerry Olson, 
University of New Hampshire 

Jeffrey Paige 

Theresa Pare 

Hank Peterson 



Brenda Perkins, 

Kathleen Gallagher Family Realty 
loan Prue 
Joe Raczka, 

Bell-Adantic Yellow Pages 
Alex Ray, The Common Man 
John Richard, The Common Man 
Lois Richard 
Judy Rigmonet, New Hampshire 

State Council on the Arts 
Teresa Rosenberger 
Robert Ross 

Stephen Roy, Adams and Roy Inc. 
Alan Rumrill, Cheshire County 

Historical Society 
Karl Salathe, Concord YMCA 
Gary Samson, University of New 

Hampshire Media Services 
Tim Scott 
|eff Schneider, Office of Physical 

Plant, Horticulture 
Tom Schwieger, 

Greater Manchester 

Chamber of Commerce 
David Sellin 
Bill Shaw, Sitesurfer Publishing 



Tim Sink, Greater Concord 

Chamber of Commerce 
Molly Hodgson Smith 
Sarah Smith, UNH Cooperative 

Extension, Forestry 
Gail Sniuda, 

Canterbury Shaker Village 
David Snyder, New Hampshire 

State Council on the Arts 
Sno.engineering 
Sno.matic Controls and 

Engineering, Inc. 
Diane Souther, Apple Hill Orchard 
Tom Southworth, Timber Framers 

Guild of North America 
Jack Story, 

Dover Chamber of Commerce 
Stein, Volinsky & Callaghan 
Robert C. Stewart Sr., 

Hopkinton State Fairgrounds 
David Sutherland, 

Keene Chamber of Commerce 
Kevin Swenson, 

Swenson Granite Company, LLC 
Audrey Sylvester, New Hampshire 

State Council on the Arts 



Joanne Tait, 

Pleasant View Gardens 
Matthew Thomas, Spaulding & 

Frost, LLC 
This Old House magazine 
Representative Arthur Tufts 
Mike Valuk, Greater Nashua 

Chamber of Commerce 
Kathleen Veracco 
Don Welch II, 

Globe Firefighting Suits 
Eileen West, New Hampshire 

State Council on the Arts 
Cindy Westover, 

Great Brooks Farm 
Mary Whether, League of 

New Hampshire Craftsmen 
Mike Whitney, 

Fleet Bank New Hampshire 
Gerry Williams, 

New Hampshire Potter's Guild 
Judi Window, 

Granite State Ambassadors 
Dawn Wivell, International Trade 

Resource Center 



Gateways to Romania 



Partner: Romanian Cultural Foundation 

Major Supporter: Government of Romania 

Major Collaborating Organizations: Office of the President of Romania; 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Ministry of Culture; U.S. Embassy in 

Romania 
Collaborating Organizations: Romanian Peasant Museum; ASTRA 

Ethnographic Museum; University of Bucharest; Aid to Artisans 
Major Contributors: Coca-Cola; CONNEX 
Contributors: Chase Manhattan Bank; Romanian Development Bank; 

Timken Foundation 
Major Donors: Nestor Nestor & Kingston Petersen; Margelus Burga; 

Cold Chain Impex S.R.L.; Zero International Inc.; General Electric 
Major In-Kind Contributors: Tarom Airlines; Bates Centrade Saatchi & 

Saatchi Romania; Romtrans 



Donors: 

ABC Medical, Dr. Napolean 

Savcscu 
American Chamber of Commerce 

in Romania 
Banc Post 
Banca Romaneasca 
Stephan Benedict 
Ion & Stella Cepoi 
Deloitte & Touche, Romania 
Exim Bank 

Liviu and Dorina Georgescu 
Michael Georgescu 
Virgil D. Gligor 
Louis B. Goldman 
Mircea and Cornelia Gohmbu 

88 



GTE 

Alan Harper 

Andrew Harper 

Ernest Harper 

IBM Romania 

luliu Maniu Foundation 

Kate Kerr 

Dr. Claude Matasa , 

Obie L. Moore 

Dan Neagoe . , 

Ion Patra^icu 

Ra|iu Foundation 

Honorary Consul Lia Roberts 

Scala Thompson 

Tiberiu Salamon 

Dr. Eliot Sorel 



Dr. Victor Suciu 
Totan Grup 
TransChem USA 
Robert Wald 
Wynelle W. White 
Young & Rubicam 
Michael Zyto 

In-Kind Donors: 

ABN AMRO Bank 

Algoritma 

ALTROM (Hotel Turist) 

Athenee Palace Hilton, Bucharest 

Bucharest What When Where 

Crystal Publishing Group 

Institute for Computers ITC 

OFC/DMB&B 

Romanian Voice TV 

2000 Olus 

Special Thanks: 

Romanian Cultural Foundation 

Augustin Buzura, President 
Carmen Firan 
Angela Martin 
Ramona Mitrica 
Angela Oi^teanu 
loan Opri^ 
Stelu^a Pahon^u 
Drago^ Tudor 



Maria Angelescu, 

Public Relations Office, Romania 
Senator Corneliu Bucur, 

ASTRA Museum, Sibiu 
Tim and Lucia Correll 
Mihai Dancu^, 

Ethnographic Museum Sighetu 

Marma^iei 
Zamfir Dejeu, Romanian Academy 

Folklore Archive, Cluj 
George Dobrea 
Rev. Petru Dugulescu, 

Deputy, Romanian Parliament 
Ion Florescu, 

Capital Securities, Romania 
Radu Florescu and John Florescu, 

Bates Centrade Saatchi & Saatchi, 

Romania 
Dr. Radu Florescu, Sr., Honorary 

Consul of Romania, Boston 
Mircea Geoana, Romanian 

Ambassador to the U.S. 
Anca Giurchescu, International 

Council for Traditional Music 
Institute of Ethnography and 

Folklore "C. Brailoiu" 
Emilia lonescu. 

Aid to Artisans, Romania 



Continued on next page 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Festival Partners, Sponsors, Contributors, and Donors 



Meredyth Jensen, 
Aid to Artisans, Washington 

Charles King, Ion Rafiu Chair, 
Georgetown University 

Gail Kligman, UCLA 

John Klipper and 
Viviana Palade, Romanian- 
American Enterprise Fund 

Martin Koenig 

Ernest Latham 

Sorin Marpozan 

National Center for Conservation 



of Tradition and Folklore 
l^r. loan Ohean, La Premiera 
Mihai Oroveanu, Artexpo 
Kristen Paneraii, 

U.S. Embassy, Bucharest 
Luminija Petrescu, 

President's Office, Romania 
^tefan Pop, IMP, Romania 
Marge Predeteanu 
Speran(a Radulescu 
Theresa Richard 
Romanian Embassy, 



Washington, D.C. 
lames Rosapepe, 

U.S. Ambassador to Romania 
Felicia Ro^u 
Georgeta Ro§u, 

Romanian Peasant Museum 
Dr. Napoleon Savescu 
Armand Scala, Congress of 

Romanian Americans 
Dr. Eliot Sorel 
Michelle Sprang, USAID 
Nancy Sweezy 



Randy Tift 

Transylvanian Ethnographic 

Museum, Bra«;ov 
Christina Ungureanu, 

ASTRA Museum, Sibiu 
University of Bucharest 
Armina Vlaicu, Bates Centrade 

Saatchi & Saatchi 
Village Museum, Bucharest 
U.S. Fulbright-Hays Program 
UCLA-World Music and Dance 
Elias Wexlar 



South Africa: Crafting the Economic 
Renaissance of the Rainbow Nation 

Major Collaborating Organizations: South African Department of 

Arts, Culture, Science and Technology; National Arts Council of 
South Africa 

Collaborating Organizations: Buy-Afrika; African Art Centre; 
Skukuza Alliance 

Corporate Donors: KWV; Royal Hotel, Durban 

In-Kind Contributors: 



Fifth Annual Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert 

Contributors: The Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds; 

Ruth Mott Foundation 
Special Thanks: Emily Botein 



Aqua Coating, Inc., 

Manassas Park, VA 
KR Industries, Cicero, IL 

Special Thanks: 

Embassy of the 

Republic of South Africa 
Sheila Sisulu, 

Ambassador to the U.S. 
Franklin Sonn, 

former Ambassador to the U.S. 
James Joseph, U.S. Ambassador to 

South Africa 
Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of 

Culture 
Pradeep Maharaj 
Ezra Mtshontshi 
C. Maxwell Cameron 
Maridel Araneta 
Valerie Thomas 
Rayda Becker 
Peggy Bendel 
Nono Buthelezi 
Kabelo Cook 
Senate Cook 

Margret Courtney-Clarke 
Bongi Dhlomo 
Bob Edgar 
Marcia Gallo 
Paola Gianturco 
Thomas Hull 
Michael Jackson 
Roger Jardine 
Mary Braxton Joseph 



Blakey Komani 

Megan Lombard 

Metro Travel 

Gordon Metz 

Delores Mortimer 

Mamosebi Mphofe 

Mwiza Munthali 

Zenobia Newton 

Ben Nteso 

Lebohang Nteso 

Sundru Pillay 

Pro-File Consultancy 

Eastern Cape Province 

Free State Province 

Gauteng Province 

KwaZulu-Natal Province 

Mpumalanga Province 

North West Province 

Northern Province 

Northern Cape Province 

Western Cape Province 

South African Tourism Board 

Raymond Seefeldt 

Zodwa Sikakane 

Phyllis Slade-Martin 

Penny Stein 

Carol Steinberg 

Andre Udenthal 

U. S. Embassy, South Africa 

U. S. Information Service 

Mike Van Graan 

Bettye Ward 

Brian Williams 

Kimberly Worthington 



Smithsonian Office and Bureau Support 

Facilities Services Group 
Engineering & Design 
Environmental 
Management & Safety 
Physical Plant 
Horticulture 



Office of the Secretary 
Office ot Inspector General 
Office of 

Membership & Development 
Office of Planning, 

Management & Budget 
Office of the Under Secretary 
Office of Communications 

Public Affairs 

Visitor Information and 

Associates' Reception Center 
Office of the Comptroller 
Office of Contracting 

Travel Services Office 
Office of Equal Employment & 

Minority Affairs 
Office of the General Counsel 
Office of Government Relations 
Office of Human Resources 
Office of Imaging, 

Printing & Photographic Services 
Office of Information Technology 
Office of Risk & Asset Management 
Office of Special Events & 

Conference Services 



Smitlisoiiiau Magazine 
Office of the Provost 
Accessibility Program 

National Museum of 

American History 

Director's Office 
Division of Cultural History 
Office of Public Services 

Office of Exhibits Central 
Office of Fellowships & Grants 
Office of International Relations 
Office of Sponsored Projects 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



89 



Festival Staff 

Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival 

Director, Center for Folklife and 

Cultural Heritage: Richard Kurin 
Deputy Director: Richard Kennedy 
Festival Director: Diana Parker 

Administrative 
and Fiscal Support 

Administrative Officer: 
Barbara Strickland 
Administrative Assistants, Folklife: 
Bill Holmes, Katherine Ferguson, 
Rachelle Hardy 
Administrative Assistants/ 
Receptionists: Bernard Howard, 
Ramona Dowdal 
Special Events Coordinator: 

Linda Benner 
Participant Coordinator: 

Mara Schlimm 
Assistant Participant Coordinators: 

Michelle Kim, Meredith MacKay 
Participant Intern: Meghan Steed 
Housing Coordinator: 

Yulette George 
Social Coordinator: )ohari Rashad 
Computer Specialist/ Assistants: 
R.C. Forney, Pam Rogers, 
Gorgui N'Diaye, David Mealo, 
Dale Dowdal 
Volunteer Coordinator: Kate Stinson 
Assistant Volunteer Coordinator: 

Meredith Forster 
Volunteer Intern: 

Maria Elena Cepeda 
Marketplace Manager: 

Marlene Graves 
Concessions Cash Manager: 

A.C. Stickel 
Consignment Coordinator: 

Suporia Harris 
Consignment Assistant: 

Brian Posey 
Foodways Coordinator: 

Philippa Jackson 
Program Book Sales Coordinator: 

Marc Goldstein 
Special Projects Coordinator: 
Amy Horowitz 



Technical Support 

Technical Director: Pete Reiniger 

Assistant Technical Director: 
Deborah Sullivan 

Carpenters: Dovid AcUer, 
John Doherty, Anthony LaGreca 

Electrician: U.L. White 

Pipefitter: Raymond A. Reed 

Crew Chiefs: 
Lynn Joslin, Cheryl Zook 

Administrative Assistant, Technical: 
Kim Frietze 

Exhibit Workers: James Barnes, 
Delonte Clark, Margaretta 
Daughtrey, Sam Jones, Susan 
Kelleher, Terry Meniefield, Sean 
O'Toole, Derian Thomas 

Sound/Stage Staff: Teresa Ballard, 
Saul Brody, Frank Brown, 
Jeanette Buck, Paul Cogan, 
Henry Cross, Rachel Cross, 
Gregory Dishman, Vicki 
Fleming, Gregg Lamping, 
Sissy Lang, Carrie LQlie, 
Camilla Moreno, Al McKenney, 
Paul Douglas McNevich, Charlie 
Pilzer, Claudia Telliho, 
James Welsh 
Supply Coordinators: 
Herb Ruffm II 
Clinton E. Olive 11 
Logistics Coordinator: 
Liam Gray 

Design & Production 

Art Director: Kenn Shrader 
Production Manager: 

Kristen Fernekes 
Design Assistant: Caroline Brownell 
Design Interns: Andy Buckman, 

Brenna Dailey 

Editing 

Editor: Carla Borden 
Associate Editor: Peter Seitel 
Proofreaders: Kristen Fernekes, 

Arlene Reiniger, Tom Vennum 
Cookbook Research Intern: 

Abigail Dreibelbis 



Documentation 

Documentation Coordinator: 

Jeff Place 
Photo Documentation Coordinator/ 

Webmaster: Stephanie Smith 
Video Documentation: 

Charlie Weber 
Documentation Interns: 

Lee Bryars, Kusum Harchandrai, 

Tanya Irvine, Justin Partyka, 

Kendra Portier, Mary Rogers, 

Lauren Weintraub 
Chief Volunteer, Documentation: 

Marilyn Gaston 

Education and 
Program Support 

Director, Cultural Heritage Policy: 

James Early 
Education Specialists: 
Betty Belanus, Marjorie Hunt, 
Diana Baird N'Diaye 
Intern Coordinator: 
Arlene Reiniger 
Education Intern: 

Kishana Dore Poteat 
Evening Programs Coordinators: 
Mary Lee, Kate Rinzler, 
Cynthia Vidaurri 
Cross-Cultural Program Coordinator: 

Olivia Cadaval 
Program Assistant: Trini Gonzales 
Accessibility Coordinator: 

John Franklin 
Public Information: 
Vicki Moeser, Eden Miller, 
JoAnn Webb 
PubHc Information Intern: 

Simona Supekar 
Assistant to the Festival Director: 

Mary Lee 
Sign-Lanuage Interpreters: 
Candas Barnes, Jean Bergey, 
Martin Hiraga, Kimberley 
Underwood, Hank Young 
Sign Master: Ernest Hairston 
Interpreter: Sambia Shivers-Barclay 



Smithsonian 
Folkways Recordings 

Director and Curator: 

Anthony Seeger 
Assistant Director: D.A. Sonneborn 
Production Coordinator/Festival 

Sales Manager: Mary Monseur 
Sound Production Supervisor: 

Pete Reiniger 
Audio Specialist: Ronnie Simpkins 
Assistant Audio Specialist: 

Scott Finholm 
Mail Order Accounts Manager: 

Sharleen Kavetski 
Mail Order Customer Service 

Representatives: Lee Demsey, 

Matt Levine, Nakieda Moore 
Financial Officer: Heather Berthold 
Marketing Director: Brenda Dunlap 
Marketing Assistants: 

Jimmy Locklear, John Smith 
Product Manager: Michael Maloney 
Licensing, Royalties, and 

International Sales: Kevin Doran 
Interns: Scott Bartlett, Laura 

Bernazzoli, Helen Gillet, 

Kimberly Junod, Jonathan 

McCoUum, Kevin Miller, 

Clara Odell, Amber Papini, 

Viktoria Rill 



90 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Festival Staff 



New Hampshire 
Program Staff 

Curators: Betty Belanus, 
Lynn Martin 

Program Coordinator: 
Arlene Reiniger 

Program Assistant: Rachel Mears 

Program Research Committee: 
Michael Chaney, J.B. Cullen, 
Fred Dolan, Jim Garvin, Becky 
Lawrence, Gail McWilliam, 
Melissa Walker 

Archivist/Festival Assistant: 
lulie Gallagher 

Participant Assistant: 
Meredith MacKay 

Interns: Rhona Campbell, 
Sonja Hayden, Darrol Hughes, 
Mary Lloyd, Sarah Swain, 
Elizabeth Weissenborn 

Chief Volunteer: 
Elisa Volkert 

Foodways Volunteer: 
Virginia McCauley 

Researchers: Jack Beard, Linda 
Bornstein, Tom Carroll, Deborah 
Cottrell, Martin Delgadillo, Kate 
Dodge, Sue Hawkins, Susan 
lasse, Kathy Neustadt, Marjorie 
Goodson, Jill Linzee, Lynn 
Martin, Louis Mazzari, Rachel 
Mears, Linda Merely, Julien 
Olivier, Jessica Payne, Simon 
Phillips, Matt Pouliott, Fran 
Kessler Richardson, Andy 
Stewart, Audrey Sylvester, 
Josee Vachon, Eleanor Wachs, 
Quincy Whitney, Patryc Wiggins, 
Vermont Folklife Center 

Presenters: Jack Beard, Lynn Blye, 
Deborah Cottrell, J.B. Cullen, 
Kate Dodge, Burt Feintuch, Lynn 
Garland, Austin Graton, Sue 
Hawkins, John Hutton, Susan 
Jasse, Louis Mazzari, Kathy 
Neustadt, Julien Olivier, Dereck 
Owen, Diane Souther, Andy 
Stewart, Lucie Therrien, Matthew 
Thomas, Eleanor Wachs, Patryc 
Wiggins 

Logistics Coordinator: Alan Hardy 

Celebrate New Hampshire Culture 
Administrative Staff: 
Heidi Dunn, Melanie Higgins, 
Jennifer McLean, Patric 
McGloin, Catherine A. Wright, 
Rona ZIokower 



Romania 
Program Staff 

Curator: Colin Quigley 
Program Coordinator: 

Robert Dunlap Miclean 
Program Assistant: Laura Beldinian 
Curatorial Committee: 
Corneliu Bucur, Nicolae 
Constantinescu, Mihai Dancu?, 
Zamfir Dejeu, Irina Nicolau, loan 
Opri*;, Georgeta Ro^iu 
Curatorial Advisor: Charles King 
Development Specialist: Josh Silver 
Participant Assistant: Michelle Kim 
Chief Volunteer: Andreea Der^idan 
Interns: Margaret Duden, Robert 

Scott Jansen 
Presenters: Eva Borbely, Nicolae 
Constantinescu, Mihail Dancu$, 
Zamfir Dejeu, Carmen Firan, 
Irina Horea, loana leronim, 
Cipriana Petre, Luminifa 
Petrescu, Georgeta Ro^u, 
Nicolae Voicule) 



South Africa 
Program Staff 

Curators: Ruphus Matibe, 
James Early 

Program Coordinators: 
Corney Wright, Ivy Young 

Program Assistant: Nomvula Cook 

Curatorial Committee: 
Anthea Martin, African Art 
Center; Philemon Ngomane, 
Skukuza Alliance; Cloe Rolves, 
Buy Afrika; Evelyn Senna 

Participant Assistant: 
Mara Schlimni 

Editor, South Africa: 
Barbara Ludman 

Graphics/Design, South Africa: 
Ilizabeth Schoeman, Philisiwe 
Sibaya, Toinette Wesdey 

Documentation, South Africa: 
Jan Kotzee, Martha Kotzee, 
Stephen Shorney, Jefferey 
Michael van Ryneveld 

Interns: Tania Tam, Sabra Thorner 

Presenters: Calita Fourie, Victor 
Julius, Gladys Vuvelvu 
Mahlangu, Tosca Makhambeni, 
Joseph Mathe, Ruphus Matibe, 
Nomsa Mdlalose, Martha Metlae, 
Alicia Monis, Sandile Mtshiki, 
Zakhe Ngqobe, Doreen Nteta, 
Soobramoney Satchidhandan 
Pillay, Emmerentia Potgieter, 
Edwin Rihlamvu, Corney Wright 

Participants in South Africa- 
Smithsonian Culture and 

Community-Building Reciprocal 

Learning Program: 

Rayda Becker, Johannesburg; 
Primrose S. Dlamini, Durban; 
Linda Fortune, Cape Town; 
Jeremiah Buti Mahlangu, 
Pretoria; Nisa Malange, Durban; 
Nalini Moodley, Durban; Shireen 
Narkedien, Cape Town; Janet 
Pillai, University of Fort Hare, 
Alice; Lucky Ramatseba, 
Johannesburg; Dr. Marcus 
Ramogale, University of the 
North, Sonenga; Professor G. 
Themba Sirayi, University of Fort 
Hare, Alice 



Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert 
Program Staff 

Curator: Ethel Raini 
Program Coordinator: Kate Rinzler 
Participant Assistant: Michelle Kim 
Presenters: Martin Koenig, Ethel Raim 

UNESCO 
Conference Staff 

Smithsonian Institution 
Center for Folklife 
and Cultural Heritage 

Director: Richard Kurin 
Co-Coordinators: James Early, 

Anthony Seeger 
Program Coordinator: 

Amy Horowitz 
Assistant Program Coordinator: 

Anthony McCann 
Logistics Coordinator: John Franklin 
Special Events Coordinator: 

Linda Benner 
Editor: Peter Seitel 
Participant Coordiriator: 

Mara Schlimni 
Volunteer Coordinator: Kate Stinson 
Program Intern: Lisa Maiorino 
Legal Analyst: Brad Simon 
Legal Consultant: Sherylle Mills 
Program Consultant: 

Leslie Prosterman 
Administrative Officer: 

Barbara Strickland 
Computer Consultant: Pam Rogers 
Art Director: Kenn Shrader 
Production Manager: 

Kristen Fernekes 
Design Assistant: Caroline Brownell 
Design Interns: Andy Buckman, 

Brenna Dailey 
Translator: Nilda Villalta 

Cultural Heritage 
Division of UNESCO 

Director: Mounir Bouchenaki 
Director, Intangible Heritage 

Unit of UNESCO: Noriko Aikawa 
Program Consultants: 

Lu Hui, Samantha Sherkin 
Program Assistants: 

Alexandra Bochi, Michele 

Camous, Christine Cazenave 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



91 



Associated Conferences and Seminars 



A Global Assessment of the 
1989 UNESCO Recommendation 
ON THE Safeguarding of 
Traditional Culture and 
Folklore: Local Empowerment 
^^^^^^^^ AND International 

r n n n COOPERATION 

I June 27-30, 1999 



3 Smithsonian Institution 

Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage 

With support from: 

Cultural Ajfairs Department, Japanese Ministry of 
Foreign Ajfairs; U.S. Department of State; Rockefeller 
Foundation; Smithsonia}i Institution Office of 
International Relations; National Endowtnent 
for the Arts 

The Smithsonian Institution's Center for Folkhfe 
and Cultural Heritage hosts a conference to review 



the UNESCO "Recommendation on the Safeguarding of 
Traditional CuUure and Folklore" issued a decade ago. The 
conference will identify and analyze general trends and chal- 
lenges faced by producers of traditional culture and folklore, 
and propose some approaches to the general problems that 
can be addressed through international cooperation. 

This conference will provide an opportunity to review the 
resuhs of eight regional seminars, organized by the Intangible 
Heritage Division of UNESCO, which have discussed the 
implementation of the 1989 resolution in their regions. It will 
also present an opportunity to examine the importance of 
traditional culture in local, regional, and international con- 
texts, and the importance of supporting community practi- 
tioners with local knowledge as a key to cuhural, social, and 
economic development. Conference participants will include 
the representatives from the eight UNESCO regions as well as 
specialists in cuhural and intellectual property, folklore and 
related fields, representatives of NGOs, and community prac- 
titioners and leaders whose experience can offer direction 
and guidance. 

Conference proceedings will be available by contacting 
UNESCO@folklife.si.edu. Please indicate "Conference 
Proceedings" in the subject line. 



Festival Teacher's Seminar 

As in previous years, the Center will offer a seminar for teach- 
ers during the Festival. "Bringing Folklife into the Classroom" is 
cosponsored by the Smithsonian Office of Education. This pop- 
ular seminar, now in its fifth year, attracts Washington-area 
teachers who obtain hands-on experience in the folklorist's 
methods of learning about culture: observing, documenting, 
interviewing, and interpreting. Instructors for the course, 
which meets June 23-27, are Drs. Diana Baird N'Diaye and 
Marjorie Hunt of the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. 

Celebrate New Hampshire 
Visiting Teacher Fellows 

Teachers from throughout New Hampshire will also be attend- 
ing the Festival to conduct "living research" with participants 
from their home state. In preparation for developing education- 
al materials for their students, the 30 Celebrate New Hampshire 
Fellows will attend three days of in-service training on the 
process of researching living traditions. They will be provided 
with materials and tools to observe, interact with, and docu- 
ment Festival participants and will share their training and 



«^«£l 






Participants at the 1997 Festival Teacher's Seminar meet and talk. 

Photo by Kent! Shrmier 

research with other teachers back in New Hampshire through 
in-service workshops and a Web site. (This is a Celebrate New 
Hampshire project in partnership with the University of New 
Hampshire's New England Folklife Institute, New Hampshire 
Public Television, and the New Hampshire State Council on the 
Arts. The project is funded by the School to Work Program of 
the New Hampshire Department of Education). 



92 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



1999 Educational Offerings j '<„ 

Current Educational Offerings 

FROM THE Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage 



p 




Workers at the White House 

This half-hour video docu- 
mentary features the occupa- 
tional folklife and oral histo- 
ries of a broad range of White 
House workers — butlers, 
maids, doormen, chefs, plumbers, and others. Through their 
memories, skills, and values, these workers help us to under- 
stand the White House in human terms — as a home and a 
workplace, a public building and a national symbol. A 24-page 
educational booklet accompanies the video. Produced in coop- 
eration with the White House Historical Association and the 
National Archives, copyright 1994. Grades 6-12. $24.95. 
Catalog #SFW48003 



'Identidad: 
, romteras> 

'tBOROERSi' 
felDENTIT\J, 



Borders and Identity 

This bilingual kit explores the complex 
notion of identity along the United 
States/Mexico border. In four seg- 
ments — on history, belief, expressive 
arts, and occupational traditions — 
students learn from the stories of bor- 
der residents. This kit includes a four- 
part video, a poster-size cultural map, and a teacher/student 
guide with exercises for classroom use. Published 1996. Grades 
6-12. $55.00 kit; $10 cultural map separately. Catalog 
#SFW90010 



c-^^. 



Land and Native American Cuhures 

W'j LAND AND This kit introduces studeuts to the use 
^ £d AMHUCAN I of land in Native American communi- 

W^, CUWUBBI . , , , J- , 

ties through three case studies: the 
Hopi of Arizona; the Tlingit, Haida, 
and Tsimshian of Alaska; and the 
Aymara and Quechua of Bolivia and 
Peru. Units address subsistence, crafts, 
mythology, and ritual. The kit includes 
an extensive teacher/student guide 
with narrative, photographs, resource listing, and activity 
questions. A slide set accompanies the guide. Published 1997. 
Grades 9-12. $21.00. Catalog #SFW9001 1 





Wisconsin Powwow / Naamikaaged: 
Dancer for the People 

This two-video set shows how powwows 
incorporate historical traditions and modern 
innovations. The first video is a general treat- 
ment of the powTvow as it is held by Ojibwe 
people in northern Wisconsin. The second fol- 
lows a young Ojibwe, Richard LaFernier, as he 
dresses and paints himself for a powwow, 
honors his ancestors, and sings at powwows in northern 
Wisconsin. A 40-page accompanying booklet includes histori- 
cal background, a transcription of the soundtrack, classroom 
questions, and suggestions for further reading and listening. 
Published 1996. Grades 6-12. $34.95. Catalog #SFW48004 

Learning About Folklife: The U.S. 
Virgin Islands & Senegal 

This kit concentrates on the rich folk- 
life of the U.S. Virgin Islands and 
Senegal through a focus on foodways, 
music and storytelling, and celebra- 
tions. The kit contains a four-part 
video cassette, two audio cassettes, 
and a teachers guide with maps, photographs, and line illus- 
trations. Published 1992. Grades 6-12. $45.00. Catalog 
#SFW90012 



To ORDER, V^^RITE, FAX, OR CALL: 
Smithsonian Folkways Mail Order 

955 L'Entant Plaza, SW, Suite 7300, Washington, DC 20560-0953 

Phone: (202) 287-7298 FAX: (202) 287-7299 

Orders only: (800) 410-9815 

All prices include shipping and handling. 

Visit the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural 
Heritage on the Web at <http://www.si.edu/folklife>. 




Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



93 



Evening Programs Calendar 



Wednesday, June 23 

South African Dance Party at the Romanian Music & Dance Hall, 
5:30-7:00 p.m. Dance to the rhythm of bongo drums, marimba, 
and ttibiras, as the Phambili Marimba Band from Cape Town per- 
forms traditional music and dance. 

Romanian Concert at the Romanian Music & Dance Hall, 
7:00-9:00 p.m. Featuring urban, folk, and Gypsy music, this concert 
presents a variety of Romanian musical genres. 

Thursday, June 24 

Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert: "Traditional Music for the 
Wedding" at the New Hampshire Town Hall Music & Dance Stage 
(in case of rain, Baird Auditorium, National Museum of Natural 
History), 5:30- 9:00 p.m. This year's fifth annual Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert, honoring the achievements of the long-time 
Festival director, will feature traditional wedding music from the 
Balkan countries of Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia and the 
Eastern Caucasus of the former Soviet Union. The Yuri Yunakov 
Ensemble expands upon traditional Balkan village melodies to bring 
an eclectic mix of jazz, rock, Turkish, and Indian music to listeners. 
They are joined by the New York-based Ensemble Tereza, who skill- 
fully fuse their traditional south Caucasian instruments with modern 
ones. Both groups illustrate the popular appeal that "wedding music" 
has in diaspora communities. This concert is supported by The 
Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds and the Ruth 
Mott Foundation. 

Friday, June 25 

New Hampshire Dance Party at the South African Luvhandeni 

("Virtuoso") Stage, 5:30-7:00 p.m., with klezmer music. 

South African Concert at the South African Luvhandeni 
("Virtuoso") Stage, 7:00-9:00 p.m. Presented in Tswana, Zulu, 
Xhosa, and Sotho languages, the Teemayo Traditional Dance Group 
addresses traditional and contemporary issues in theatrical form. 

Saturday, June 26 

Romanian-American Night at the Romanian Music & Dance Hall, 
5:00-9:00 p.m. Join in as Romanian Americans gather on the National 
Mall to celebrate their heritage and traditions. Romanian Americans 
and the general pubhc are invited to participate in this festive evening, 
which features performances by Romanian musicians and dancers. 
Orient Express, an urban ethno-pop jazz fusion band, also performs. 

Sunday, June 27 

Old Home Day in the New Hampshire Program Area; Dance Party 
begins at 5:30 p.m. Celebrate that "down-home feeling," as we pro- 
vide an all-day event filled with traditional community activities 
from New Hampshire. Included will be the Temple Community 

94 



Marching Band, a fireman's muster, old-fashioned children's games, 
and cooking demonstrations. Following these events will be an 
evening contra and square dance party. 

Wednesday, June 30 

New Hampshire Dance Party at the South African Luvhandeni 

("Virtuoso") Stage, 5:30-7:00 p.m. Contra, square, and Irish ceiU 

dancing. 

Stellenbosch Libertas Choir at the South African Luvhandeni 
("Virtuoso") Stage, 7:00-9:00 p.m. In the spirit of the Rainbow 
Nation, South Africa's mukiracial Libertas Choir makes a special 
appearance at the Folklife Festival. 

Thursday, July 1 

South African Dance Party at the Romanian Music & Dance Hall, 
5:30-7:00 p.m. Marimba and mbim music by the Phambili 
Marimba Band. 

Fiddle Combination with Fiddlers from New Hampshire and 
Romania at the Romanian Music & Dance Hall, 7:00-9:00 p.m. 

Fiddlers from New Hampshire and Romania come together to 
demonstrate the shared customs that exist amid the diversity of this 
year's Festival. 

Friday, July 2 

CoNjuNTO Dance Party at the South African Luvhandeni 
("Virtuoso") Stage (in case of rain, Baird Auditorium, National 
Museum of Natural History), 5:30-9:00 p.m. In collaboration with 
the National Museum of American History's ENCUENTROS pro- 
gram, this dance party brings Mexican-American dance music to a 
wider audience from its South Texas home, where it is played at 
weddings, female coming-of-age ceremonies, graduation dances, 
and funerals. The dance party features Los Hermanos Layton and 
Gilberto Perez y Sus Compadres. It also marks the release of the new 
Smithsonian Folkways recording, Taquachito Nights: Conjunto Music 
from South Texas, a CD formed out of a partnership between the 
Smithsonian and the Narciso Martinez Cultural Arts Center. 

Saturday, July 3 

Franco- American Day in the New Hampshire Program Area, 
5:30-9:00 p.m. To feature this community's cuhural presence in 
New Hampshire, we are hosting a "Franco-American Day" to recog- 
nize the heritage and traditions of New Hampshire's residents who, 
beginning in the 1800s, immigrated from Quebec. A Franco soiree 
and dance party are planned. 

Sunday, July 4 

New Hampshire Dance Party at the New Hampshire Town Hall 

Music & Dance Stage, 5:30-7 p.m. Contra and square dancing. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Special Concerts and Events 

Fifth Annual Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert 

Traditional Music 
FOR THE Wedding 

Thursday, June 24, 5:30 - 9:00 p.m. 
New Hampshire Town Hall 
Music 8c Dance Stage'*^ 

Masters ofCcrcwoiiies — Martin Koenig and Ethel Raini 

Ensemble Tereza 

Featuring Ruslan Agababayev, Mark Elizarov, Tereza Elizarova, 

Alex Hafizov, Rashad Mamedov, Victoria Minayev, Salamon 

Ryvinov, Robson Yefraimov 

Yuri Yunakov Ensemble 

Featuring Lauren Brody, Catherine Foster, Jerry Kisslinger, 

Ivan Milev, Carol Silverman, Yuri Yunakov 

This concert is made possible with support from The Recording 
Industries Music Performance Trust Funds and the Ruth Mott 
Foundation. 



Orient Express 

Romanian Jazz Fusion 
Friday, June 25, Noon 
Carmichael Auditorium, National 
Museum of American History 

Featuring Octavian Andreescu, Mario Florescu, Hanno 
Hoefer, Zoltan Hollandus, Mihai lordache, Jiini Laco, Edi 
Neumann, Hari Tavitian 



Old New England 

Thursday, July 1, 6:00-7:00 rm. 
Millennium Stage 
Kennedy Center 
FOR THE Performing Arts 

Featuring Bob McQuillen, Jane Orzechowski, Deanna Stiles 




CoNjuNTO Dance Party 

Friday, July 2, 5:30-9:00 rm. 
South African Luvhandeni Stage'^ 

Los Hermanos Layton 

Featuring Gilbert Gonzalez, Norfilia Layton Gonzalez, 
Antonio V. Layton, Benigno Layton, Rene Layton 
Gilberto Perez y Sus Compadres 
Featuring Cande Aguilar, Sr., Gilberto Perez, Jr., Gilberto 
Perez, Sr., Jaview Perez 

In collaboration with the National Museum of American 
History's ENCUENTROS program, this dance party marks the 
release of the new Smithsonian Folkways recording, 
Taquachito Nights: Conjunto Music from South Texas, a CD 
produced in partnership with the Smithsonian and the 
Narciso Martinez Cultural Arts Center of San Benito, Texas. 



* In case of rain, Baird Auditorium, National Museum of Natural History. 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



95 



Recent Books about the Festival 
and Smithsonian Folkways 

Available at the Festival Marketplace 



Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival 

Culture Of, By, and For the People 




RlCHABD KltRIN 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival: 
Culture Of, By, and For the People 

by Richard Kurin 

1 84 pages, over 200 photos 

Full color ISBN 0-9665520-0-8 

Price: $10.00 

Available through mail order: 
(202) 287-7297"or (800) 410-9815 

Add $ 1 for shipping and handling for mail order. 

This book provides a Festival history, an explanation ot how 
the Festival is produced, analysis of various programs, and 
some of the best images and quotes about the Festival over 
the past 32 years. Excellent for reference, and an attractive gift. 










Making People's Music: 

Moe Asch and Folkways Records 

by Peter D. Goldsmith 468 pages, illustrations 
Hardbound $34.95 

ISBN 1-56098-812-6 

A history of Folkways and a window into folk music and the cultural 

history ot twentieth-century America. 

Available through mail order: (202) 287-7297 or (800) 410-9815. 

Add $5.50 tor shipping and handling for mail order. 



OF A 

CULTURE BROKER 

A VIEW FROM THE SMITHSONIAN 



'(%^^ 




RICHARD KURIN 



Reflections of a Culture Broker: 
A View from the Smithsonian 

by Richard Kurin 315 pages, illustrations 
Hardbound $34.95; Soft cover $17.95 

ISBN l-5ti098-789-8 ISBN 1-56098-757-x 

An account of the practice of cultural representation in various 
Smithsonian museums, festivals, and special events. 
Available through Smithsonian Institution Press. 

Call (800) 785-4612 or (703) 661-1599 to order. 



96 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Lily Spandorf 
Festival Collection 

At the Center for Folklife 
and Cultural Heritage 




Lily Spandorf is an artist who has documented aspects of 
Washington life through her sketches, watercolors, and 
drawings over the past four decades. For many years her 
illustrations illuminated the Washington Star newspaper. 
National Geographic featured her cityscape of capital life. 
Paintings of local architecture were turned into a book, 
Washington Never More, the subject of a Barr Weissman fihn. The 
White House Historical Association acquired a collection of her 
"Christmas at the White House" paintings and drawings. The 
Senate acquired her work documenting the timing of Advise 
and Consent. In 1988 she was the first local solo artist to be ex- 
hibited at the National Museum of Women in the Arts. Since 
1967 Lily has come to the National Mall every summer to draw 
scenes from the Folklife Festival. These drawings — watercolors 
and line drawings — document Festival artists, musicians, per- 
sonalities, performances, audiences, and major events. 

The Smithsonian wishes to acquire Lily's 575-plus drawings 
of the Festival. They will be housed in the Center's Ralph 

FRIENDS OF THE FESTIVAL LILY SPANDORF 
FESTIVAL COLLECTION ACQUISITION CAMPAIGN 

Cut out card and mail to 
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, 955 L'Enfant Plaza SW. Suite 2600. Washington, DC 20560-0914 

Name: 



Address: 



City/State/ZIP: 
Telephone: ( _ 



I would like to support the acquisition of the Lily Spandorf 

Festival Collection. I would like to donate: 

U$25 uSSO LI $75 U$100 U $500 J Other $ 



I would like my donation properly acknowledged in a list of supporters in 

the Lily Spandorf Collection catalog when published. □ Yes u No 

I would like to receive a copy of the catalog when published. J Yes □ No 

Mail this card with your check to the above address. Please make checks payable to 
the Smithsonian Institution. The Smithsonian is a 501(c)(3) organization, so your 
contribution is tax deductible in the United States. You must subtract the value of 
any goods you receive from your deduction, which, if you decide to receive the cata- 
log, is $5. The minimum donation to receive a catalog is $25. 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 1999 



Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, where they will join 
Ben Shahn's record covers and Woody Guthrie's notebooks and 
artwork. The acquisition will result in the preservation of the 
original drawings, the making of digital copies, and the publi- 
cation of a catalog of images. The drawings will be used for 
the purposes of research, education, and promotion. A com- 
mittee has been formed to help solicit contributions to enable 
the acquisition and preservation of the collection. 

If you can help support this effort, please fill out the form 
below. All donors will be acknowledged in a published catalog of 
the collection at the level of their donation, and donors of $25 and 
above wOl receive one free copy of the catalog. 

Acquisition Support Committee 

Jeannine Smith Clark Smithsonian Regent Emerita, former Chair, 

Historical Society of Washington, D.C. 
Neil Horstman Executive Director, White House Historical Association 
Richard Kurin Director, Smithsonian Center for Folklife 

and Cultural Heritage 
Mary McGrory Columnist, Waihiugtou Post 
Diana Parker Director, Smithsonian Folklife Festival 
Diane Skvarla Curator, U.S. Senate 




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Smithsonian 
Folkways Recordings 



Historic and 
contemporary recordings 




Big sale witii special prices 
at tiie Festival Marketplace Tent. 
Browse through hundreds of CDs and cassettes. 

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800.410.9815 or folkways@aol.com 
to order CDs or a catalogue 

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Folkways Recordings 






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to order CDs or a catalogue 



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Smithsonian Institution 

Secretary: I. Michael Heyman 
Under Secretary: 
Constance Berry Newman 
Provost: Dennis O'Connor 

Center for Folklife and 
Cultural Heritage 

Director: Richard Kurin 

Deputy Director: 

Richard Kennedy 

Festival Director: Diana Parker 

Director. Switlisoiiiaii Folkways 

Recordings: Anthony Seeger 

Director, Cultural Heritage Policy: 

James Early 

Administrative Officer: 

Barbara Strickland 

Senior Ethnoniusicologist: 

Thomas Vennum, Jr. 

Chair Research & Education: 

Olivia Cadaval 

Assistant Director, Sniithsoiuati 

Folkways Recordings: 

D.A. Sonneborn 

Curators, Folklorists, Education & 

Cultural Specialists: Betty J. 

Belanus, Marjorie Hunt, Diana 

Baird N'Diaye, Peter Seitel 

Program/Publications Manager: 

Carla M. Borden 

Program Manager: 

John W. Franklin 

Coordinator Eatino Cultural 

Resource Network: 

Cynthia Vidaurri 

Technical Director: Pete Reiniger 

Art Director: Kenn Shrader 

Design Project Coordinator: 

Kristen Fernekes 

Archivist: Jeffrey Place 

Assistant Archivist: 

Stephanie Smith 

Program Specialist: 

Arlene L. Reiniger 

Media Specialist: Charlie Weber 

Fiscal Managers: 

Heather Berthold, 

Katherine Ferguson, Bill Holmes 



Folkways Promotion Manager: 
Brenda Dunlap 
Folkways Mamifacturing & 
Distribution Coordinator: 
Mike Maloney 

Folkways Production Coordinator: 

Mary Monseur 

Audio Recording Specialist: 

Ronnie Simpkins 

Assistant Audio Recording 

SpeciaUst: 

Scott Finholm 

Folkways Merchandise Specialist: 

Sharleen Kavetski 

Folkways Fulfillment Staff: 

Lee Michael Demsey, Matt 

Levine, Nakeida Moore 

Administrative Assistant to the 

Director & Administrative Officer: 

Linda Benner 

Administrative 

Assistant/Receptionist: 

Bernard Howard 

Volunteers: 

Dale Dowdal, Ramona Dowdal 

Fellows & Research Associates: 

Stanford Carpenter, Roland 

Freeman, Dan Goodwin, Nancy 

Groce, Yanique Hume, Ivan Karp, 

Alan Lomax, Worth Long, Rene 

Lopez, Anthony McCann, Brett 

Pyper, Kate Rinzler, Lynnell 

Thomas, Nilda Villalta 

Advisors: Michael Asch, Phyllis 

Barney, Jane Beck, Don DeVito, 

Pat Jasper, Ella Jenkins, Jon 

Kertzer, Barbara Kirshenblatt- 

Gimblett, John Nixdorf, Bernice 

Johnson Reagon, Gilbert Sprauve, 

Jack Tchen, Ricardo Trimillos 



National Park Service 

Secretary of the Interior: 

Bruce Babbitt 

Director, National Park Service: 

Robert Stanton 

Director National Capital Region: 

Terry R. Carlstrom 

Chief, United States Park Police: 

Robert E. Langston 

Commander Special Forces, 
United States Park Police: 
Maj. Marvin Ellison 
Special Events, United States 
Park Police: Diana Smith 

Superintendent, National Capital 

Region-Central: 

Arnold M. Goldstein 

Chief, Division of Visitor Services, 

National Capital Parks-Central: 

Donna Donaldson 

Associate Superintendent of 

Maintenance, Natiotml Capital 

Parks-Central William Newman, Jr. 

Site Manager, National Malt, 

National Capital Parks-Central 

Erin Broadbent 

Special Assistant for Partnerships, 

National Capital Parks-Central 

Lisa Mendelson 

Concessions Specialist, National 

Capital Parks-Central 

Nelson Hoffman 

Employees of the National Capital 

Area and the United States Park 

Pohce 

Major Sponsors 

Ne\v Hampshire 
This program is produced wilfi the 
New Hampshire Commission on the 
Smithsonian Folkhfe Festival and 
its non-profit affiliate Celebrate 
New Hampshire Culture in partner- 
ship with the New Hampshire State 
Coutuil on the Arts, Department of 
Cultural Resources, and the State of 
New Hampshire. The presenting 
sponsor is Bell Atlantic. Other 
major sponsors include Fleet Bank 
NH: Heahhsource New Hampshire, 
A CIGNA Healthcare Company: 
Public Service of New Hampshire; 
Sanders, A Lockheed Martin 
Company; Tyco International Ltd.; 
Fidelity Investments; Fisher 
Scientific International Inc.; and 
The Recording Industries Music 
Performance Trust Funds. 



Romania 

The Romania program is produced 
with the Romanian Cultural 
Foundation and organized with the 
cooperation of the Office of the 
President of Romania, the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of 
Culture, and the U.S. Embassy in 
Romania, and with support from 
the Government of Romania. Major 
sponsors are Coca-Cola and 
CONNEX. Contributors include the 
Romanian Development Bank, 
Chase Manhattan Bank and tfie 
Timken Foundation. Donors 
include Nestor Nestor & Kingston 
Petersen, Cold Chain Impex S.R.L., 
Zero International Inc., and 
General Electric. Major in-kind sup- 
port is provided by Tarom Airlines, 
Bates Centrade Saatclii & Saatclii 
Romania, and Romtrans. 

South Africa 

This program is produced with the 
collaboration and support of the 
South African Department of Arts, 
Culture, Science and Technology 
and the National Arts Council. 
Other contributors include the 
Department of Trade and Industry, 
Department of Foreign Affairs, 
Department of Sport and 
Recreation, Buy-Afrika, African Art 
Centre, and Skukuza Alliance. 
Special appreciation to Metro Travel 
and corporate sponsors. KWV and 
the Royal Hotel, Durban. 

Ralph Rinzler 
Memorial Concert 

This program is made possible with 
support from Tlie Recording 
Industries Music Performance Trust 
Funds and the Ruth Mott 
Foundation. 



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